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SUMMARY A combination of bisulfite treatment of DNA and high-throughput sequencing (BS-Seq) can capture a snapshot of a cell's epigenomic state by revealing its genome-wide cytosine methylation at single base resolution. Bismark is a flexible tool for the time-efficient analysis of BS-Seq data which performs both read mapping and methylation calling in a(More)
Methylation at the 5' position of cytosine in DNA has important roles in genome function and is dynamically reprogrammed during early embryonic and germ cell development. The mammalian genome also contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which seems to be generated by oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the TET family of enzymes that are highly expressed(More)
Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming occurs in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos, but the precise dynamics and biological outcomes are largely unknown. We have carried out whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq) and RNA-Seq across key stages from E6.5 epiblast to E16.5 PGCs. Global loss of methylation takes place during(More)
The discovery of interchromosomal interactions in higher eukaryotes points to a functional interplay between genome architecture and gene expression, challenging the view of transcription as a one-dimensional process. However, the extent of interchromosomal interactions and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we present the first genome-wide(More)
Elucidating how and to what extent CpG islands (CGIs) are methylated in germ cells is essential to understand genomic imprinting and epigenetic reprogramming. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first integrated epigenomic analysis of mammalian oocytes, identifying over a thousand CGIs methylated in mature oocytes. We show that these CGIs depend on(More)
Epigenetic reprogramming including demethylation of DNA occurs in mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) and in early embryos, and is important for the erasure of imprints and epimutations, and the return to pluripotency. The extent of this reprogramming and its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that the cytidine deaminases(More)
Genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation takes place in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and early embryos and is linked with pluripotency. Inhibition of Erk1/2 and Gsk3β signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by small-molecule inhibitors (called 2i) has recently been shown to induce hypomethylation. We show by whole-genome bisulphite sequencing that 2i(More)
We report a single-cell bisulfite sequencing (scBS-seq) method that can be used to accurately measure DNA methylation at up to 48.4% of CpG sites. Embryonic stem cells grown in serum or in 2i medium displayed epigenetic heterogeneity, with '2i-like' cells present in serum culture. Integration of 12 individual mouse oocyte datasets largely recapitulated the(More)
Bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA combined with next-generation sequencing (BS-seq) is widely used to measure the methylation state of a whole genome, the methylome, at single-base resolution. However, analysis of BS-seq data still poses a considerable challenge. Here we summarize the challenges of BS-seq mapping as they apply to both base and color-space(More)
Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric GTPases, is an integrator of intracellular signaling in a wide range of cellular processes. We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol. It is an abundant, 185 kDa guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which we cloned and named P-Rex1. The recombinant enzyme has(More)