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Stem cell research provides a foundation for therapeutic advancement in oncology, clinical genetics and a diverse array of degenerative disorders. For example, the elucidation of pathways governing proliferative regulation and differentiation within cellular systems will result in medical strategies aimed at the root cause of cancer. At present the(More)
BACKGROUND The outcome of local excision of early rectal cancer using transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) lacks consensus. Screening has substantially increased the early diagnosis of tumours. Patients need local treatments that are oncologically equivalent to radical surgery but safer and functionally superior. METHODS A national database, collated(More)
AIM Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for early rectal cancer (ERC) gives results similar to major surgery in selected cases. Endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) is an important part of the preoperative selection process. This study reports its accuracy and impact for patients entered on the UK TEM database. METHOD The UK TEM database comprises(More)
BACKGROUND Radical surgery is the de facto treatment for early rectal cancer. Conservative surgery with transanal endoscopic microsurgery can achieve high rates of cure but the histopathological measures of outcome used to select local treatment lack precision. Biomarkers associated with disease progression, particularly mesorectal nodal metastasis, are(More)
BACKGROUND Total mesorectal excision (TME) remains commonplace for T1-2 rectal cancer owing to fear of undertreating a small proportion of patients with node-positive disease. Molecular stratification may predict cancer progression. It could be used to select patients for organ-preserving surgery if specific biomarkers were validated. METHODS Gene(More)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum. Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission. Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is(More)
BACKGROUND Formalin fixation, duration of tissue storage and tissue enrichment techniques can affect DNA methylation yield but these effects have not been quantitatively measured. The aim is to investigate the relative impact of these conditions on DNA methylation in rectal cancer. METHODS 10 rectal cancers with matched undissected fresh frozen tissues,(More)
BACKGROUND The last 30 years have witnessed a significant increase in the diagnosis of early-stage rectal cancer and the development of new strategies to reduce the treatment-related morbidity. Currently, there is no consensus on the definition of early rectal cancer (ERC), and the best management of ERC has not been yet defined. The European Association(More)
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for the 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. IPAA is favored by patients because it avoids the necessity for a long-term stoma. This review examines how 3 decades of experience with IPAA has molded current practice, highlighting 5- and 10-year follow-up(More)
AIM Strain elastography is a method for recording tissue hardness. Strain in different areas may be compared using strain ratio (SR). The aims of this study were to validate a previously proposed SR cut-off value of 1.25 for differentiating adenocarcinomas from adenomas and to compare the performance of endorectal ultrasonography (ERUS), strain elastography(More)