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BACKGROUND Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare disorder characterized by short episodes of involuntary movement attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movements. Although a genetic basis is suspected in idiopathic cases, the gene has not been discovered. Establishing strict diagnostic criteria will help genetic studies. METHODS The authors(More)
The interactions of viruses with polarized epithelial cells are of some significance to the pathogenesis of disease because these cell types comprise the primary barrier to many virus infections and also serve as the sites for virus release from the host. Poliovirus-epithelial cell interactions are of particular interest since this virus is an important(More)
Dimeric derivatives (compounds 7 to 9) of the influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir (compound 2), which have linking groups of 14 to 18 atoms in length, are approximately 100-fold more potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo than zanamivir. The observed optimum linker length of 18 to 22 A, together with observations(More)
Polarized epithelial cells represent the primary barrier to virus infection of the host, which must also be traversed prior to virus dissemination from the infected organism. Although there is considerable information available concerning the release of enveloped viruses from such cells, relatively little is known about the processes involved in the(More)
The transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contains a leucine zipper-like (hydrophobic heptad) repeat which has been predicted to form an amphipathic alpha helix. To evaluate the potential of the hydrophobic heptad repeat to induce protein oligomerization, this region of gp41 has been cloned into the bacterial expression vector(More)
The synthesis, antiviral and pharmacokinetic properties of zanamivir (ZMV) dimers 8 and 13 are described. The compounds are highly potent neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors which, along with dimer 3, are being investigated as potential second generation inhaled therapies both for the treatment of influenza and for prophylactic use. They show outstanding activity(More)
Entry into the host cell by enveloped viruses is mediated by fusion (F) or transmembrane glycoproteins. Many of these proteins share a fold comprising a trimer of antiparallel coiled-coil heterodimers, where the heterodimers are formed by two discontinuous heptad repeat motifs within the proteolytically processed chain. The F protein of human respiratory(More)
The oligomeric structure of the Friend murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein has been investigated using crosslinking reagents and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The results obtained provide evidence that both the precursor and the processed molecules are oligomeric and probably form tetramers. Pulse-chase analyses indicate that assembly(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein has been shown to be extensively modified by N-linked glycosylation; however, the presence of O-linked carbohydrates on the glycoprotein has not been firmly established. We have found that enzymatic deglycosylation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with neuraminidase and O-glycosidase(More)