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Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases with diverse roles in health and disease. The primordial PI3K, Vps34, is present in all eukaryotes and has essential roles in autophagy, membrane trafficking, and cell signaling. We solved the crystal structure of Vps34 at 2.9 angstrom resolution, which revealed a constricted adenine-binding pocket,(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VMC) to improve corticospinal transmission, muscle function, and purposeful movement early after stroke. METHODS Factorial 2 x 2 randomized single-blind trial. SUBJECTS n = 27, mean age 75 years, mean 27 days after middle cerebral(More)
Deregulation of the phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) pathway has been implicated in numerous pathologies including cancer, diabetes, thrombosis, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Recently, small-molecule and ATP-competitive PI(3)K inhibitors with a wide range of selectivities have entered clinical development. In order to understand the mechanisms(More)
OBJECTIVE Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the lesioned hemisphere might enhance motor recovery after stroke, but the appropriate dose (parameters of rTMS) remains uncertain. The present review collates evidence of the effect of rTMS on corticospinal pathway excitability and motor function in healthy adults and in people after stroke.(More)
—In this paper we describe a method of using interval valued survey responses from multiple experts on multiple oc-cassions to produce General Type-2 fuzzy sets. In the method we propose, both the intra-and inter-person variability are modelled, with no loss of information. The resulting sets are completely determined by the data, providing an accurate(More)
— Planning resources for a supply chain is a major factor determining its success or failure. In this paper we introduce an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic model of a distribution network. It is believed that the additional degree of uncertainty provided by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic will allow for better representation of the uncertainty and vagueness present(More)
BACKGROUND Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive muscular weakness and death, most typically from respiratory complications. Dysphagia is common in DMD; however, the most appropriate swallowing assessments have not been universally agreed and the symptoms of dysphagia remain under-reported. AIMS To investigate symptoms of dysphagia in DMD(More)
Planning resources for a supply chain is a major factor determining its success or failure. In this paper we build on previous work introducing an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic model of a multiple echelon supply chain. It is believed that the additional degree of uncertainty provided by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic will allow for better representation of the(More)
BACKGROUND Functional training and muscle strength training may improve upper limb motor recovery after stroke. Combining these as functional strength training (FST) might enhance the benefit, but it is unclear whether this is better than conventional physical therapy (CPT). Comparing FST with CPT is not straightforward. OBJECTIVE This study aimed at(More)
—In this paper we explore the practical application of the previously introduced approach [1] to generate fuzzy sets from interval-valued data. We demonstrate two specific example applications where we 1) generate type-1 fuzzy sets from interval-valued survey data for both words (e.g., neutral, excellent) and concepts (e.g., ambience, food) and 2) generate(More)