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The classic view of estrogen actions in the brain was confined to regulation of ovulation and reproductive behavior in the female of all mammalian species studied, including humans. Burgeoning evidence now documents profound effects of estrogens on learning, memory, and mood as well as neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. Most data derive(More)
This review considers evidence which reveals considerable complexity and sex differences in the response of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system to hormonal influences. This pathway degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD) and sex hormones contribute to sex differences in PD, where men fare worse than women. Here we discuss evidence from animal(More)
Central dopaminergic (DA) systems appear to be particularly vulnerable to disruption by exposure to stressors in early life, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in other aspects of neurobiological programming, this study aimed to characterize the effects of perinatal GC exposure on the(More)
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons of the arcuate nucleus and/or the lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland are key targets for the programming effects of perinatal glucocorticoids (GCs). Dexamethasone was administered noninvasively to fetal or neonatal rats via the mothers' drinking water (1(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate further the hormone-dependent processes underlying sex differences in neurotoxic responses within the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway after partial lesioning with 6-OHDA, a state thought to mimic the early stages of Parkinson's disease where, in humans and animal models alike, males appear to be more(More)
Early exposure to stressors is strongly associated with enduring effects on central nervous system function, but the mechanisms and neural substrates involved in this biological 'programming' are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to glucocorticoid stress hormones (GCs) during critical periods of development permanently(More)
The incidence of certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, appears to be more prevalent in men. Studies involving estrogen treatment of ovariectomised rodents attribute this largely to the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. However, a neuroprotective role for physiological levels of circulating hormones in males and females is less(More)
We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16-19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of(More)
Neutrophil activation and adhesion must be tightly controlled to prevent complications associated with excessive inflammatory responses. The role of the anti-inflammatory peptide chemerin15 (C15) and the receptor ChemR23 in neutrophil physiology is unknown. Here, we report that ChemR23 is expressed in neutrophil granules and rapidly upregulated upon(More)
The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD), which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyze the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the(More)