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The classic view of estrogen actions in the brain was confined to regulation of ovulation and reproductive behavior in the female of all mammalian species studied, including humans. Burgeoning evidence now documents profound effects of estrogens on learning, memory, and mood as well as neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. Most data derive(More)
This review considers evidence which reveals considerable complexity and sex differences in the response of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system to hormonal influences. This pathway degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD) and sex hormones contribute to sex differences in PD, where men fare worse than women. Here we discuss evidence from animal(More)
The brain microenvironment is continuously monitored by microglia with the detection of apoptotic cells or pathogens being rapidly followed by their phagocytosis to prevent inflammatory responses. The protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) is key to the phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes during peripheral inflammatory resolution, but the pathophysiological(More)
Epidemiological and clinical studies provide growing evidence for marked sex differences in the incidence of certain neurological disorders that are largely attributed to the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. Thus there is a keen interest in the clinical potential of estrogen-related compounds to act as novel therapeutic agents in conditions of neuronal(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate further the hormone-dependent processes underlying sex differences in neurotoxic responses within the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway after partial lesioning with 6-OHDA, a state thought to mimic the early stages of Parkinson's disease where, in humans and animal models alike, males appear to be more(More)
Central dopaminergic (DA) systems appear to be particularly vulnerable to disruption by exposure to stressors in early life, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in other aspects of neurobiological programming, this study aimed to characterize the effects of perinatal GC exposure on the(More)
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons of the arcuate nucleus and/or the lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland are key targets for the programming effects of perinatal glucocorticoids (GCs). Dexamethasone was administered noninvasively to fetal or neonatal rats via the mothers' drinking water (1(More)
The incidence of certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, appears to be more prevalent in men. Studies involving estrogen treatment of ovariectomised rodents attribute this largely to the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. However, a neuroprotective role for physiological levels of circulating hormones in males and females is less(More)
Early exposure to stressors is strongly associated with enduring effects on central nervous system function, but the mechanisms and neural substrates involved in this biological 'programming' are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to glucocorticoid stress hormones (GCs) during critical periods of development permanently(More)
We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16-19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of(More)