Simon McArthur

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The classic view of estrogen actions in the brain was confined to regulation of ovulation and reproductive behavior in the female of all mammalian species studied, including humans. Burgeoning evidence now documents profound effects of estrogens on learning, memory, and mood as well as neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. Most data derive(More)
The brain microenvironment is continuously monitored by microglia with the detection of apoptotic cells or pathogens being rapidly followed by their phagocytosis to prevent inflammatory responses. The protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) is key to the phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes during peripheral inflammatory resolution, but the pathophysiological(More)
Epidemiological and clinical studies provide growing evidence for marked sex differences in the incidence of certain neurological disorders that are largely attributed to the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. Thus there is a keen interest in the clinical potential of estrogen-related compounds to act as novel therapeutic agents in conditions of neuronal(More)
Early exposure to stressors is strongly associated with enduring effects on central nervous system function, but the mechanisms and neural substrates involved in this biological 'programming' are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to glucocorticoid stress hormones (GCs) during critical periods of development permanently(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate further the hormone-dependent processes underlying sex differences in neurotoxic responses within the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway after partial lesioning with 6-OHDA, a state thought to mimic the early stages of Parkinson's disease where, in humans and animal models alike, males appear to be more(More)
Central dopaminergic (DA) systems appear to be particularly vulnerable to disruption by exposure to stressors in early life, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in other aspects of neurobiological programming, this study aimed to characterize the effects of perinatal GC exposure on the(More)
This review considers evidence which reveals considerable complexity and sex differences in the response of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system to hormonal influences. This pathway degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD) and sex hormones contribute to sex differences in PD, where men fare worse than women. Here we discuss evidence from animal(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a critical guardian of communication between the periphery and the brain, is frequently compromised in neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), resulting in the inappropriate passage of molecules and leukocytes into the brain. Here we show that the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory messenger annexin A1 (ANXA1) is(More)
Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2), also called ALX (the lipoxin A4 receptor), conveys the proresolving properties of lipoxin A4 and annexin A1 (AnxA1) and the proinflammatory signals elicited by serum amyloid protein A and cathelicidins, among others. We tested here the hypothesis that ALX might exist as homo- or heterodimer with FPR1 or FPR3 (the two(More)
UNLABELLED Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is an effector of the resolution of inflammation and is highly effective in terminating acute inflammatory responses. However, its role in chronic settings is less investigated. Because changes in AnxA1 expression within adipose tissue characterize obesity in mice and humans, we queried a possible role for AnxA1 in the(More)