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Changing land use and the spread of 'winning' native or exotic plants are expected to lead to biotic homogenization (BH), in which previously distinct plant communities become progressively more similar. In parallel, many ecosystems have recently seen increases in local species (alpha-) diversity, yet gamma-diversity has continued to decline at larger(More)
Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Results are primarily conveyed in terms of a classification of(More)
This paper describes how Countryside Survey 2000 (CS2000) and earlier Countryside Surveys in 1990 and 1984, can be used to develop an integrated view of the changes in land cover, landscape and biodiversity that have taken place at the regional scale in Great Britain. A particular concern is to develop an understanding of how the national patterns of stock(More)
Habitat quality Pollinators Conservation A B S T R A C T We assessed national scale changes in the forage plants of bumblebees in Britain, as a means of providing quantitative evidence for the likely principal cause of declines in bumblebee species. We quantified the relative value of native and long-established plant species as forage (nectar and pollen)(More)
Agricultural intensification is best considered as the level of human appropriation of terrestrial net primary production. The global value is set to increase from 30%, increasing pressures on biodiversity. The pressures can be classified in terms of spatial scale, i.e. land cover, landscape management and crop management. Different lowland agricultural(More)
Wet deposition of nitrogen (N) occurs in oxidized (nitrate) and reduced (ammonium) forms. Whether one form drives vegetation change more than the other is widely debated, as field evidence has been lacking. We are manipulating N form in wet deposition to an ombrotrophic bog, Whim (Scottish Borders), and here report nine years of results. Ammonium and(More)
Field observations and experimental data of effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on plant species diversity have been used to derive empirical critical N loads for various ecosystems. The great advantage of such an approach is the inclusion of field evidence, but there are also restrictions, such as the absence of explicit criteria regarding significant(More)
A number of pathogenic bacterial strains, such as Staphylococcus aureus, are difficult to kill with conventional antibiotics due to intracellular persistence in host airway epithelium. Designing drug delivery systems to deliver potent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) intracellularly to the airway epithelial cells might thus be a promising approach to combat(More)
Increased plant productivity due to nitrogen pollution increases the strength of the global carbon sink, but is implicated in plant diversity loss. However, modelling and experimental studies have suggested that these effects are constrained by availability of other nutrients. In a survey of element concentrations in Calluna vulgaris across an N deposition(More)