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Thalidomide was initially used as a sedative during pregnancy but was withdrawn from the market due to its teratogenic effects. In vitro studies have shown that thalidomide inhibits tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression and protein production by mitogen-stimulated macrophages and activated T cells. Even at the highest concentration (10-1(More)
Thalidomide is an effective immunomodulatory drug in man, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized that, in addition to its reported inhibitory effects on production of monocyte-derived tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), thalidomide might be effective at the level of Th immunoregulation. In a comparative study with the(More)
Immunosuppressive drugs are used routinely to reduce the inappropriate production of cytokines in an immune response. Recent attention has focused on drugs that selectively inhibit specific cytokines. Both thalidomide and dexamethasone have been reported to exhibit immunomodulatory effects on cytokines in vitro. We wished to examine the effects of(More)
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of immunotherapy was conducted in patients with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus rhinitis. Thirty patients received an extract with a high content of Der p I (Pharmalgen), 20 received a conventional mite extract (Allpyral), and 30 patients received histamine chloride (placebo). Specific IgG and subclasses were measured(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanism of immunotherapy is unclear. Allergic disease is known to involve enhanced TH-2 cytokine responses to allergen. OBJECTIVE In order to investigate the mechanisms of immunotherapy, we have examined changes in cytokine secretion before (13 patients) and during (nine patients) both rush and conventional venom immunotherapy (VIT) in(More)
The importance of cytokine production in some disease processes is now widely recognized. To investigate temporal relationships between cytokines, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using the T cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and various antigens chosen to induce predominantly Th1 (streptokinase: streptodornase or(More)
AIMS To investigate the effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human P2X₇ receptor gene (P2RX7)--1068G>A (A348T) and 1513A>C (E496A)--on P2X₇ receptor function, using a specific receptor antagonist (GSK1370319A) and prospective genetic stratification. METHODS Lipopolysaccharide- and ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β production was(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated computed tomography (CT) assessment of the adrenal glands is associated with a significant radiation burden. The increasing capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) volumetric analysis of the adrenals make this a potentially alternative technique in man. PURPOSE To determine whether MR imaging could be used to measure adrenal volume,(More)
In an attempt to understand the role of the different IgG subclasses in allergic disease, we have studied the subclass of IgG antibody to dust mite (HDM) and grass pollen (GP) produced as a result of natural exposure. Studies were carried out on 40 atopic children and 100 atopic adults who had never received immunotherapy. Thirty-two non-atopic adult(More)