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We analyzed data obtained from 3365 patients with kala-azar (KA) or post-KA dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) treated by Medecins Sans Frontieres-Holland in south Sudan from October 1998-May 2002. Patients were malnourished (median body mass index [BMI], 15.5; median weight for height [WFH], 75.5%) and anemic (median hemoglobin (Hb) level, 8.5 g/dL). The(More)
BACKGROUND There is no conclusive evidence that screening based on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests decreases prostate-cancer mortality. Since its introduction in the USA around 1990, uptake of PSA testing has been rapid in the USA, but much less common in the UK. Our aim was to study trends over time in prostate-cancer mortality and incidence in(More)
Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe progress and perceived challenges in implementing the NHS information and technology (IT) programme in England. DESIGN Case studies and in-depth interviews, with themes identified using a framework developed from grounded theory. We interviewed personnel who had been interviewed 18 months earlier, or new personnel in the same posts.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of caesarean section on fertility among women in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN Analysis of standardised cross-sectional surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys). SETTING Twenty-two countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 1993-2003. SAMPLE A total of 35 398 women of childbearing age (15-49 years). METHODS Time to subsequent(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbed folate metabolism is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. Our objective was to determine whether blood levels of folate, vitamin B(12), and related metabolites were associated with prostate cancer risk. METHODS Matched case-control study nested within the U.K. population-based Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment(More)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in children is characterized by persistent or recurrent debilitating fatigue which results in a substantial reduction in activity. There is a growing interest in the use of questionnaires, or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), to assess how patients function and feel in relation to their(More)
In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60(More)
Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a case-control study nested within the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of components of the national programme for information technology (NPfIT) on measures of clinical and operational efficiency. DESIGN Quasi-experimental controlled before and after study using routinely collected patient level data. SETTING Four NHS acute hospital trusts in England. DATA SOURCES Inpatient admissions and(More)