Learn More
The concentration of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was measured in uterine flushings obtained from normal fertile women, from women with unexplained infertility and from women who suffered recurrent miscarriage. In normal fertile women, LIF was not detected in flushings obtained on days luteinizing hormone (LH)+0 to LH+6 of the cycle, but concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in mice suggest that CD56 + uterine natural killer (uNK) cells play an important role in implantation. Studies in humans have described an increase in the number of uNK cells in the non-pregnant mid-secretory endometrium of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM). However, the predictive value of uNK cell number in the(More)
Obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women who had a history of recurrent miscarriage were compared with a control population from 1 January 1992 to 30 June 1998. Amongst a total of 162 pregnancies which progressed beyond 24 weeks gestation in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage, there were four perinatal deaths and 16 babies were admitted to the(More)
We study a version of the Tangled Nature model of evolutionary ecology redefined in a phenotype space where mutants have properties correlated to their parents. The model has individual-based dynamics whilst incorporating species scale competitive constraints and a system scale resource constraint. Multiple species arise that coexist in a species(More)
Immunological rejection of the fetus due to recognition of paternal antigens by the maternal immune system, resulting in abnormal immune cells and cytokine production, is postulated to be one cause of unexplained pregnancy loss. Although there is evidence for this in rodents, there is less evidence in humans. This article focuses on studies in humans, and(More)
Interleukin (IL)-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and IL-11 belong to the same family of cytokines whose receptors utilize gp130 as the signalling molecule. We have investigated the expression of the IL-11 receptor, IL-11Ralpha, protein in the human endometrium in vivo and the effects of IL-6, LIF and IL-11 on the production of metalloproteinases (MMPs)(More)
BACKGROUND Although several studies have suggested that CXCL12 and its receptor, CXCR4, may play a role in embryo implantation, there are limited reports of expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in human endometrium. The aim of this study was to investigate CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression in human endometrium and to see if CXCL12 could affect matrix metalloproteinase(More)
We use a generalised version of the individual-based Tangled Nature model of evolutionary ecology to study the relationship between ecosystem structure and evolutionary history. Our evolved model ecosystems typically exhibit interaction networks with exponential degree distributions and an inverse dependence between connectance and species richness. We use(More)
BACKGROUND Endometrial defect, usually described as luteal phase defect (LPD), is associated with recurrent miscarriage. Recurrent miscarriage has also been associated with the abnormal expression of various molecules by endometrial cells. The aim of this study was to determine if any of these molecules or cells could be used to distinguish LPD from(More)