Simon Johannes Elsaesser

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The incorporation of histone H3 variants has been implicated in the epigenetic memory of cellular state. Using genome editing with zinc-finger nucleases to tag endogenous H3.3, we report genome-wide profiles of H3 variants in mammalian embryonic stem cells and neuronal precursor cells. Genome-wide patterns of H3.3 are dependent on amino acid sequence and(More)
The histone variant H3.3 is implicated in the formation and maintenance of specialized chromatin structure in metazoan cells. H3.3-containing nucleosomes are assembled in a replication-independent manner by means of dedicated chaperone proteins. We previously identified the death domain associated protein (Daxx) and the alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental(More)
Transposable elements comprise roughly 40% of mammalian genomes. They have an active role in genetic variation, adaptation and evolution through the duplication or deletion of genes or their regulatory elements, and transposable elements themselves can act as alternative promoters for nearby genes, resulting in non-canonical regulation of transcription.(More)
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates gene expression during lineage specification through trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). In Drosophila, polycomb binding sites are dynamic chromatin regions enriched with the histone variant H3.3. Here, we show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), H3.3 is required for proper(More)
Histone chaperones represent a structurally and functionally diverse family of histone-binding proteins that prevent promiscuous interactions of histones before their assembly into chromatin. DAXX is a metazoan histone chaperone specific to the evolutionarily conserved histone variant H3.3. Here we report the crystal structures of the DAXX histone-binding(More)
Histone proteins often come in different variants serving specialized functions in addition to their fundamental role in packaging DNA. The metazoan histone H3.3 has been most closely associated with active transcription. Its role in histone replacement at active genes and promoters is conserved to the single histone H3 in yeast. However, recent genetic(More)
Histone chaperones can be broadly defined as histone-binding proteins that influence chromatin dynamics in an ATP-independent manner. Their existence reflects the importance of chromatin homeostasis and the unique and unusual biochemistry of the histone proteins. Histone supply and demand at chromatin is regulated by a network of structurally and(More)
Histone H3.3 is a universal replacement histone in metazoans that has been implicated in diverse processes ranging from gene activation to heterochromatin silencing. Here, we show that, before deposition, H3.3 exists in two biochemically distinct complexes, associated with either Daxx or HIRA, Ubinuclein-1, and Cabin-1. Although the HIRA complex is(More)
Although the biological significance of protein phosphorylation in cellular signaling is widely appreciated, methods to directly detect these post-translational modifications in situ are lacking. Here we introduce the application of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy for observing de novo protein phosphorylation in vitro and in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and(More)
Identifying the proteins synthesized at specific times in cells of interest in an animal will facilitate the study of cellular functions and dynamic processes. Here we introduce stochastic orthogonal recoding of translation with chemoselective modification (SORT-M) to address this challenge. SORT-M involves modifying cells to express an orthogonal(More)