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We have identified a novel mouse Wnt genc using a cDNA differential screening procedure for retinoic-acid-induced transcripts in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Sequence analysis showed that this gene represents the first murine Wnt-8 (mWnt-8) gene reported to date. The expression of the mWnt-8 gene, which is rapidly induced by retinoic acid in P19 and(More)
Vitamin A (retinol) is essential for normal mammalian development. However, its biological activity depends upon its conversion to retinoic acid (RA), a local mediator of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that embryonic RA is found specifically in tissues known to depend upon vitamin A for normal development and that(More)
The three murine retinoic acid receptor (RAR) genes each contain two distinct promoters which give rise to protein isoforms differing in their N-terminal regions. This study used in situ hybridization to describe the expression patterns of RARalpha1, RARalpha2, RARbeta1/3, RARbeta2/4, RARgamma1 and RARgamma2 isoform transcripts during mouse embryogenesis.(More)
The C-terminal repeat domain of Clostridium difficile toxin A harbors toxin-neutralizing epitopes and is considered to be a candidate component of a vaccine against C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Fourteen of the 38 C-terminal toxin A repeats (14CDTA) were cloned into pTECH-1 in frame with the immunogenic fragment C of tetanus toxin (TETC) to(More)
Expression of the two Helicobacter pylori flagellin proteins FlaA and FlaB is required for full motility and persistent infection of the gastric mucosa. The mechanisms and regulation of the biosynthesis and export of flagella in H. pylori are still poorly understood. Scrutiny of the H. pylori 26695 genome sequence revealed homologues of FliQ and FlhB. The(More)
Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the(More)
An ultra scale-down method is described to determine the response of cells to recovery by dead-end (batch) centrifugation under commercially defined manufacturing conditions. The key variables studied are the cell suspension hold time prior to centrifugation, the relative centrifugal force (RCF), time of centrifugation, cell pellet resuspension velocities,(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) derived from vitamin A is necessary for, among other things, mammalian embryonic development. Although the impact of RA-dependent gene-regulation on embryonic development has been examined through genetic disruption of the retinoid receptors, the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear, in part, due to the(More)
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