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Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition, used within mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants to dry and partially stabilise residual municipal waste. Biodrying MBT plants can produce a high quality solid recovered fuel (SRF), high in biomass content. Here, process objectives, operating principles, reactor designs, parameters for process(More)
An integrated appraisal of five technology scenarios for the co-combustion of biosolids in the UK energy and waste management policy context is presented. Co-combustion scenarios with coal, municipal solid waste, wood, and for cement manufacture were subject to thermodynamic and materials flow modeling and evaluated by 19 stakeholder representatives. All(More)
The emission and dispersal of bioaerosols from open-air commercial composting facilities continues to be contentious. A meta-dataset enumerating cultivable microorganism emission and downwind concentrations is not yet available. A dataset derived from repeated and replicated field studies over a period of two years at two commercial composting facilities is(More)
This study investigated operational factors influencing the removal of steroid estrogens and nonylphenolic compounds in two sewage treatment works, one a nitrifying/denitrifying activated sludge plant and the other a nitrifying/denitrifying activated sludge plant with phosphorus removal. Removal efficiencies of >90% for steroid estrogens and for longer(More)
Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining(More)
A laboratory microcosm study was carried out to assess the influence of compost amendment on the degradation and bioavailability of PAHs in contaminated soils. Three soils, contaminated with diesel, coal ash and coal tar, respectively, were amended with two composts made from contrasting feedstock (green waste and predominantly meat waste) at two different(More)
Recent trends in risk-based decision making are reviewed in relation to novel developments in comparative risk analysis, strategic risk analysis, weight of evidence frameworks, and participative decision making. Delivery of these innovations must take account of organisational capabilities in risk management and the institutional culture that implements(More)
Internationally, pressure is being exerted on governments and regulators to develop modern forms of regulation that deliver more for less, and in better ways. We discuss the ways in which one large regulator, the Environment Agency for England and Wales, has responded to such pressures by implementing risk-based approaches to regulation. After exploring the(More)
The EU Directive on Waste Electrical and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) (2002/96/EC), to be implemented in stages from August 2004, attempts to tackle the growing quantity WEEE by making producers responsible for the costs of the collection and recycling of their products at the end of usable life. This is considered to give producers a financial incentive to(More)
Human exposures to air pollution control (APC) residues released from 6 landfills were modeled and assessed. Following a qualitative risk characterisation, direct and indirect exposures were quantified. Site-specific air dispersion modeling was conducted for PM(10), PCDDs/PCDFs, Pb, Cd, As and Cr(VI) concentrations at the closest residential points of(More)