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Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition, used within mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants to dry and partially stabilise residual municipal waste. Biodrying MBT plants can produce a high quality solid recovered fuel (SRF), high in biomass content. Here, process objectives, operating principles, reactor designs, parameters for process(More)
The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590 kg/m3(More)
Keywords: Regulatory decision making Cost–benefit analysis ALARP Expected utility theory a b s t r a c t In practice, risk and uncertainty are essentially unavoidable in many regulation processes. Regulators frequently face a risk-benefit trade-off since zero risk is neither practicable nor affordable. Although it is accepted that cost–benefit analysis is(More)
Over the last decade, suppliers of drinking water have recognised the limitations of relying solely on end-product monitoring to ensure safe water quality and have sought to reinforce their approach by adopting preventative strategies where risks are proactively identified, assessed and managed. This is leading to the development of water safety plans;(More)
The Agency further acknowledges the contributions and feedback received from Agency staff in the development of the Shell Licensing Kits and training in their use. National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal Page ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document provides technical guidance to Environment Agency staff and to applicants on the practical(More)
This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed(More)
A carbonaceous (heterotrophic) activated sludge process (ASP), nitrifying ASP and a nitrifying/denitrifying ASP have been studied to examine the role of process type in steroid estrogen removal. Biodegradation efficiencies for total steroid estrogens (Sigma(EST)) of 80 and 91% were recorded for the nitrifying/denitrifying ASP and nitrifying ASP(More)
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A modelling methodology using a leachate source term has been produced for estimating the timescales for achieving environmental equilibrium status for landfilled waste. Results are reported as the period of active management required for modelled scenarios of non-flushed and flushed sites for a range of pre-filling treatments. The base scenario against(More)
The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment.(More)