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Emerging complex functional materials often have atomic order limited to the nanoscale. Examples include nanoparticles, species encapsulated in mesoporous hosts, and bulk crystals with intrinsic nanoscale order. The powerful methods that we have for solving the atomic structure of bulk crystals fail for such materials. Currently, no broadly applicable,(More)
PDFfit2 is a program as well as a library for real-space refinement of crystal structures. It is capable of fitting a theoretical three-dimensional (3D) structure to atomic pair distribution function data and is ideal for nanoscale investigations. The fit system accounts for lattice constants, atomic positions and anisotropic atomic displacement parameters,(More)
Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO(2))(1)(-)(x)()(LSiO(1.5))(x)(), where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism(More)
An image plate (IP) detector coupled with high energy synchrotron radiation was used for atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, with high probed momentum transfer Q max ≤ 28.5 ˚ A −1 from crystalline materials. Materials with different structural complexities were measured to test the validity of the quantitative data analysis. Experimental(More)
Studying the structure of disordered and partially ordered materials is notoriously difficult. Recently, significant advances have been made using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of powder diffraction data coupled with the use of advanced X-ray and neutron sources and fast computers. Here we summarize some of the more spectacular(More)
We report the structure of methylammonium lead(II) iodide perovskite in mesoporous TiO2, as used in high-performance solar cells. Pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering reveals a two component nanostructure: one component with medium range crystalline order (30 atom %) and another with only local structural coherence (70 atom %). The(More)
The program PDFFIT is designed for the full pro®le structural re®nement of the atomic pair distribution function (PDF). In contrast to conventional structure re®nement based on Bragg intensities, the PDF probes the local structure of the studied material. The program presented here allows the re®nement of atomic positions, anisotropic thermal parameters and(More)
We report the observation of local structural dipoles that emerge from an undistorted ground state on warming, in contrast to conventional structural phase transitions in which distortions emerge on cooling. Using experimental and theoretical probes of the local structure, we demonstrate this behavior in binary lead chalcogenides, which were believed to(More)