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The extent to which sound identification and sound localization depend on specialized auditory pathways was examined by using functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related brain potentials. Participants performed an S1-S2 match-to-sample task in which S1 differed from S2 in its pitch and/or location. In the pitch task, participants indicated(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to define the neural regions mediating self-referential processing of emotional stimuli and to explore how these regions are influenced by the emotional valence of the stimulus. METHOD Ten healthy subjects were presented with words describing positive and negative personality traits(More)
T1, T2, and magnetization transfer (MT) measurements were performed in vitro at 3 T and 37 degrees C on a variety of tissues: mouse liver, muscle, and heart; rat spinal cord and kidney; bovine optic nerve, cartilage, and white and gray matter; and human blood. The MR parameters were compared to those at 1.5 T. As expected, the T2 relaxation time constants(More)
Brain regions modulated by cognitive tasks during emotional processing were investigated using fMRI. Participants performed indirect and direct emotional processing tasks on positive and negative faces and pictures. We used a multivariate technique, partial least squares (PLS) to determine spatially distributed patterns of brain activity associated with(More)
Autobiographical memory comprises episodic and semantic components mediated by dissociable states of consciousness, one promoting the experience of the self at a specific moment in the past, and the other involving self-knowledge that does not require ''mental time travel.'' These components can be difficult to dissociate using retrospective(More)
Words processed with reference to the self are generally better remembered than words processed in semantic terms. An account of this phenomenon, labeled the Self Reference Effect (SRE), is that the self promotes elaboration and organization of encoded information. Although a few neuroimaging studies associated self-referential encoding with activations of(More)
Functional MRI neurofeedback (fMRI NF) is an emerging technique that trains subjects to regulate their brain activity while they manipulate sensory stimulus representations of fMRI signals in "real-time". Here we report an fMRI NF study of brain activity associated with kinesthetic motor imagery (kMI), analyzed using partial least squares (PLS), a(More)
CONTEXT The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) includes disturbances in several neuroanatomical substrates and neurotransmitter systems. The challenge is to elucidate the brain mechanisms of MDD behavioral symptoms, chiefly those of anhedonia. OBJECTIVES To visualize the neuroanatomical substrates implicated in altered reward processing in(More)
This review describes magnetization transfer (MT) contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. A qualitative description of how MT works is provided along with experimental evidence that leads to a quantitative model for MT in tissues. The implementation of MT saturation in imaging sequences and the interpretation of the MT-induced signal change in terms of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In the undamaged brain, sensory input to the cortex is intricately controlled via sensory gating mechanisms. Given the role of corticothalamic pathways in this control, it was hypothesized that in patients recovering from thalamic stroke there would be evidence of disrupted sensory gating and that efficient control of cortical sensory(More)