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The incorporation of histone H3 variants has been implicated in the epigenetic memory of cellular state. Using genome editing with zinc-finger nucleases to tag endogenous H3.3, we report genome-wide profiles of H3 variants in mammalian embryonic stem cells and neuronal precursor cells. Genome-wide patterns of H3.3 are dependent on amino acid sequence and(More)
Transposable elements comprise roughly 40% of mammalian genomes. They have an active role in genetic variation, adaptation and evolution through the duplication or deletion of genes or their regulatory elements, and transposable elements themselves can act as alternative promoters for nearby genes, resulting in non-canonical regulation of transcription.(More)
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates gene expression during lineage specification through trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). In Drosophila, polycomb binding sites are dynamic chromatin regions enriched with the histone variant H3.3. Here, we show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), H3.3 is required for proper(More)
Histone chaperones represent a structurally and functionally diverse family of histone-binding proteins that prevent promiscuous interactions of histones before their assembly into chromatin. DAXX is a metazoan histone chaperone specific to the evolutionarily conserved histone variant H3.3. Here we report the crystal structures of the DAXX histone-binding(More)
Histone chaperones are a diverse class of proteins that facilitate chromatin assembly. Their ability to stabilize highly abundant histone proteins in the cellular environment prevents non-specific interactions and promotes nucleosome formation, but the various mechanisms for doing so are not well understood. We now focus on the dynamic features of the DAXX(More)
Turnover and exchange of nucleosomal histones and their variants, a process long believed to be static in post-replicative cells, remains largely unexplored in brain. Here, we describe a novel mechanistic role for HIRA (histone cell cycle regulator) and proteasomal degradation-associated histone dynamics in the regulation of activity-dependent(More)
The efficient, site-specific introduction of unnatural amino acids into proteins in mammalian cells is an outstanding challenge in realizing the potential of genetic code expansion approaches. Addressing this challenge will allow the synthesis of modified recombinant proteins and augment emerging strategies that introduce new chemical functionalities into(More)
We demonstrate the evolution of the PylRS/tRNA(CUA) pair for genetically encoding photocaged cysteine. By characterizing the incorporation in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells, and the photodeprotection process in vitro and in mammalian cells, we establish conditions for rapid efficient photodeprotection to reveal native proteins in live cells. We(More)
Isocitrate dehydrogenase is mutated at a key active site arginine residue (Arg172 in IDH2) in many cancers, leading to the synthesis of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). To investigate the early events following acquisition of this mutation in mammalian cells we created a photoactivatable version of IDH2(R172K), in which K172 is replaced with(More)