Simon J. Davis

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B7-1 and B7-2 are generally thought to have comparable structures and affinities for their receptors, CD28 and CTLA-4, each of which is assumed to be bivalent. We show instead (1) that B7-2 binds the two receptors more weakly than B7-1, (2) that, relative to its CTLA-4 binding affinity, B7-2 binds CD28 2- to 3-fold more effectively than B7-1, (3) that,(More)
Over the past decade, key protein interactions contributing to T cell antigen recognition have been characterized in molecular detail. These have included interactions involving the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) itself, its coreceptors CD4 and CD8, the accessory molecule CD2, and the costimulatory receptors CD28 and CTLA-4. A clear view is emerging of how(More)
The crystal structure of a soluble form of the T lymphocyte antigen CD2 provides the first complete view of the extracellular region of a cell adhesion molecule. The topology of the molecule, which comprises two immunoglobulin-like domains, is the same as that of the first two domains of CD4 but the relative domain orientation is altered by a fairly(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are hypothesized to play a key role in the processes of endothelial cell migration and matrix remodeling during angiogenesis. We utilized an in vitro model of microvascular endothelial cell angiogenesis, cells cultured within a collagen matrix, to investigate the MMP profile of endothelial cells undergoing angiogenesis. We(More)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a critical mediator of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell exhaustion. Here, we examined the expression of PD-1 on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8+ T cells and its possible involvement in regulation of cytokine production, proliferation, and survival of these cells. The majority of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells expressed a(More)
The structurally related T cell surface molecules CD28 and CTLA-4 interact with cell surface ligands CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and modulate T cell antigen recognition. Preliminary reports have suggested that CD80 binds CTLA-4 and CD28 with affinities (Kd values approximately 12 and approximately 200 nM, respectively) that(More)
Optimal immune responses require both an antigen-specific and a co-stimulatory signal. The shared ligands B7-1 and B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells deliver the co-stimulatory signal through CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells. Signalling through CD28 augments the T-cell response, whereas CTLA-4 signalling attenuates it. Numerous animal studies and recent clinical(More)
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), which relies on nonradiative energy transfer between luciferase-coupled donors and GFP-coupled acceptors, is emerging as a useful tool for analyzing the quaternary structures of cell-surface molecules. Conventional BRET analyses are generally done at maximal expression levels and single acceptor/donor(More)
Naive T cell activation requires signaling by the T cell receptor and by nonclonotypic cell surface receptors. The most important costimulatory protein is the monovalent homodimer CD28, which interacts with CD80 and CD86 expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Here we present the crystal structure of a soluble form of CD28 in complex with the Fab fragment of(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase activity is instrumental in processes of cellular invasion. The interstitial invasion of endothelial cells during angiogenesis is accompanied by up-regulation of several matrix metalloproteinases, including membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). In this study, we show that endothelial cells stimulated to undergo(More)