Learn More
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial. We show that postnatal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain. In(More)
The reprogramming of adult cells into pluripotent cells or directly into alternative adult cell types holds great promise for regenerative medicine. We reported previously that cardiac fibroblasts,which represent 50%of the cells in the mammalian heart, can be directly reprogrammed to adult cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro by the addition of Gata4, Mef2c(More)
Myogenic potential, survival and expansion of mammalian muscle progenitors depend on the myogenic determinants Pax3 and Pax7 embryonically, and Pax7 alone perinatally. Several in vitro studies support the critical role of Pax7 in these functions of adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells), but a formal demonstration has been lacking in vivo. Here we show,(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify(More)
Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first(More)
Although the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1) is encoded by a single gene, it is widely expressed in both fetal and adult tissues and functions in many diverse physiological processes to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis. In order to determine whether NCX1 is also ubiquitously expressed in the early mouse embryo, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR(More)
Periostin, also termed osteoblast-specific factor 2, is a matricellular protein with known functions in osteology, tissue repair, oncology, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and in various inflammatory settings. However, most of the research to date has been conducted in divergent and circumscribed areas meaning that the overall understanding of this(More)
The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in homing of stem cells to the bone marrow and the homing of bone marrow-derived cells to sites of injury. Bone marrow cells infiltrate brain and give rise to long-term resident cells following injury. Therefore, SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression(More)
The embryonic vertebral column is derived from the unsegmented axial mesenchyme surrounding the notochord, and its development and differentiation are influenced by the notochord. The role of cartilage in determining the ultimate pattern of the segmental skeleton has been well documented, but a gene whose segmental expression corresponds to the pattern of(More)