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Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial. We show that postnatal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain. In(More)
We investigated the transport of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters by the potential-sensitive organic transporter OCT3 and its steroid sensitivity using heterologous expression systems and also analyzed the expression of OCT3 in the brain. When expressed in mammalian cells, OCT3 mediates the uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(More)
During cardiogenesis, perturbation of a key transition at mid-gestation from cardiac patterning to cardiac growth and chamber maturation often leads to diverse types of congenital heart disease, such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), myocardium noncompaction, and ventricular hypertrabeculation. This transition, which occurs at embryonic day (E) 9.0-9.5 in(More)
The reprogramming of adult cells into pluripotent cells or directly into alternative adult cell types holds great promise for regenerative medicine. We reported previously that cardiac fibroblasts,which represent 50%of the cells in the mammalian heart, can be directly reprogrammed to adult cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro by the addition of Gata4, Mef2c(More)
Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first(More)
We examined in this study the expression of the potential-sensitive organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. A functionally active OCT3 was cloned from a mouse kidney cDNA library. The cloned transporter was found to be capable of mediating potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations including tetraethylammonium. This function was(More)
We have demonstrated in the present study that novel organic cation transporter (OCTN) 2 is a transporter for organic cations as well as carnitine. OCTN2 transports organic cations without involving Na(+), but it transports carnitine only in the presence of Na(+). The ability to transport organic cations and carnitine is demonstrable with human, rat, and(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify(More)
This report describes the structure, function, and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1 (novel organic cation transporter 1). The rat OCTN1 cDNA was isolated from a rat placental cDNA library. The cDNA is 2258 bp long and codes for a protein of 553 amino acids. Its amino acid sequence bears high homology to human OCTN1 (85% identity) and rat OCTN2 (74%(More)
The mouse placenta was unveiled as an important reservoir for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), yet the origin of placental HSCs was unknown. By tracking developing HSCs by expression of Runx1-lacZ and CD41, we have found that HSCs emerge in large vessels in the placenta. Analysis of Ncx1(-/-) embryos, which lack a heartbeat, verified that HSC development is(More)