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Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial. We show that postnatal hematopoietic progenitors do not significantly contribute to microglia homeostasis in the adult brain. In(More)
We investigated the transport of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters by the potential-sensitive organic transporter OCT3 and its steroid sensitivity using heterologous expression systems and also analyzed the expression of OCT3 in the brain. When expressed in mammalian cells, OCT3 mediates the uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(More)
The reprogramming of adult cells into pluripotent cells or directly into alternative adult cell types holds great promise for regenerative medicine. We reported previously that cardiac fibroblasts,which represent 50%of the cells in the mammalian heart, can be directly reprogrammed to adult cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro by the addition of Gata4, Mef2c(More)
OBJECTIVE Several mouse models of cardiac neural crest cell (NCC)-associated conotruncal heart defects exist, but the specific cellular and molecular defects within cardiac NCC morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the underlying mechanisms resulting in outflow tract defects and why insufficient cardiac NCC reach the heart(More)
Myogenic potential, survival and expansion of mammalian muscle progenitors depend on the myogenic determinants Pax3 and Pax7 embryonically, and Pax7 alone perinatally. Several in vitro studies support the critical role of Pax7 in these functions of adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells), but a formal demonstration has been lacking in vivo. Here we show,(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) are the dendritic cells (DCs) of the epidermis, forming one of the first hematopoietic lines of defense against skin pathogens. In contrast to other DCs, LCs arise from hematopoietic precursors that seed the skin before birth. However, the origin of these embryonic precursors remains unclear. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify(More)
Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first(More)
Although the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1) is encoded by a single gene, it is widely expressed in both fetal and adult tissues and functions in many diverse physiological processes to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis. In order to determine whether NCX1 is also ubiquitously expressed in the early mouse embryo, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR(More)
Haploinsufficiency of Tbx1 is likely a major determinant of cardiac and craniofacial birth defects associated with DiGeorge syndrome. Although mice deficient in Tbx1 exhibit pharyngeal and aortic arch defects, the developmental program and mechanisms through which Tbx1 functions are relatively unknown. We identified a single cis-element upstream of Tbx1(More)