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Circular RNAs (circRNAs), formed by non-sequential back-splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts, are a widespread form of non-coding RNA in animal cells. However, it is unclear whether the majority of circRNAs represent splicing by-products without function or are produced in a regulated manner to carry out specific cellular functions. We show that hundreds of(More)
The ability of wheat to maintain a low sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) in leaves correlates with improved growth under saline conditions. This trait, termed Na(+) exclusion, contributes to the greater salt tolerance of bread wheat relative to durum wheat. To improve the salt tolerance of durum wheat, we explored natural diversity in shoot Na(+) exclusion(More)
The physiological role and mechanism of nutrient storage within vacuoles of specific cell types is poorly understood. Transcript profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells differing in calcium concentration ([Ca], epidermis <10 mM versus mesophyll >60 mM) were compared using a microarray screen and single-cell quantitative PCR. Three tonoplast-localized(More)
Control of ion loading into the xylem has been repeatedly named as a crucial factor determining plant salt tolerance. In this study we further investigate this issue by applying a range of biophysical [the microelectrode ion flux measurement (MIFE) technique for non-invasive ion flux measurements, the patch clamp technique, membrane potential measurements](More)
Pluripotent cells of embryonic origin proliferate at unusually rapid rates and have a characteristic cell cycle structure with truncated gap phases. To define the molecular basis for this we have characterized the cell cycle control of murine embryonic stem cells and early primitive ectoderm-like cells. These cells display precocious Cdk2, cyclin A and(More)
BACKGROUND Plants contain relatively few cell types, each contributing a specialized role in shaping plant function. With respect to plant nutrition, different cell types accumulate certain elements in varying amounts within their storage vacuole. The role and mechanisms underlying cell-specific distribution of elements in plants is poorly understood. (More)
In plants, MADS domain transcription factors act as central regulators of diverse developmental pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the most central members of this family is SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), which is involved in many aspects of plant reproduction, including floral meristem and floral organ development. SEP3 has been shown to form homo and(More)
Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown(More)
Germline-specific Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal genomes against transposons and are essential for fertility. piRNAs targeting active transposons are amplified by the ping-pong cycle, which couples Piwi endonucleolytic slicing of target RNAs to biogenesis of new piRNAs. Here, we describe the identification of a transient Amplifier complex(More)
• Magnesium accumulates at high concentrations in dicotyledonous leaves but it is not known in which leaf cell types it accumulates, by what mechanism this occurs and the role it plays when stored in the vacuoles of these cell types. • Cell-specific vacuolar elemental profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) leaves were analysed by X-ray(More)