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Macrophages detect pathogen infection via the activation of their plasma membrane-bound Toll-like receptor proteins (TLRs). The heterotypic interaction between the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains of TLRs and adaptor proteins, like Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), is the first intracellular step in the signaling pathway of(More)
Glycogen is the major mammalian glucose storage cache and is critical for energy homeostasis. Glycogen synthesis in neurons must be tightly controlled due to neuronal sensitivity to perturbations in glycogen metabolism. Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, congenital, neurodegenerative epilepsy. Mutations in the gene encoding the glycogen phosphatase laforin(More)
The insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in stress resistance and longevity, but the mechanisms are not fully characterized. To identify genes that mediate stress resistance, we screened for C. elegans mutants that can tolerate high levels of dietary zinc. We identified natc-1, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved subunit of the(More)
X-ray crystallography provides excellent structural data on protein-DNA interfaces, but crystallographic complexes typically contain only small fragments of large DNA molecules. We present a new approach that can use longer DNA substrates and reveal new protein-DNA interactions even in extensively studied systems. Our approach combines rigid-body(More)
Laforin and starch excess 4 (SEX4) are founding members of a class of phosphatases that dephosphorylate phosphoglucans. Each protein contains a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) and a dual-specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain. The gene encoding laforin is mutated in a fatal neurodegenerative disease called Lafora disease (LD). In the absence of laforin(More)
Crystal structures of the xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 2B4 have demonstrated markedly different conformations in the presence of imidazole inhibitors or in the absence of ligand. However, knowledge of the plasticity of the enzyme in solution has remained scant. Thus, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) was utilized to probe the(More)
The type I cGMP-dependent protein kinases play critical roles in regulating vascular tone, platelet activation and synaptic plasticity. PKG I α and PKG Iβ differ in their first ~100 amino acids giving each isoform unique dimerization and autoinhibitory domains with identical cGMP-binding pockets and catalytic domains. The N-terminal leucine zipper and(More)
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