Simon Hawkins

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Cinnamoyl CoA:NADP oxidoreductase (CCR, EC 1.2.1.44) catalyzes the conversion of cinnamoyl CoA esters to their corresponding cinnamaldehydes, i.e. the first specific step in the synthesis of the lignin monomers. The cloning of a cDNA encoding CCR in Eucalyptus gunnii (EUCCR) is reported here. The identity of the EUCCR cDNA was demonstrated by comparison(More)
We consider the problem of finding outliers in large multivariate databases. Outlier detection can be applied during the data cleansing process of data mining to identify problems with the data itself, and to fraud detection where groups of outliers are often of particular interest. We use replicator neural networks (RNNs) to provide a measure of the(More)
Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A(More)
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these(More)
Lignin and lignans share monolignols as common precursors and are both potentially involved in plant defence against pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effects of fungal elicitors on lignin and lignan metabolism in flax (Linum usitatissimum) cell suspensions. Cell suspension cultures of flax were treated with elicitor preparations made from(More)
The nature of the enzyme(s) involved in the dehydrogenative polymerization of lignin monomers is still a matter of debate. Potential candidates include laccases which have recently received attention due to their capacity to oxidize lignin monomers and close spatial and temporal correlation with lignin deposition. We have characterized two H2O2-independent(More)
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived(More)
We have proposed replicator neural networks (RNNs) for outlier detection [8]. Here we compare RNN for outlier detection with three other methods using both publicly available statistical datasets (generally small) and data mining datasets (generally much larger and generally real data). The smaller datasets provide insights into the relative strengths and(More)
In order to learn more about the diversity of genes expressed during flax fibre cell wall formation, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from a cDNA library derived from the outer fibre-bearing tissues of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems (cv Hermes) harvested at the mid-flowering stage. After elimination of vector and unreadable sequences, 927 ESTs(More)
In the context of our research on cell wall formation and maturation in flax (Linum usitatissimum L) bast fibers, we (1) confirmed the presence of lignin in bast fibers and (2) quantified and characterized the chemical nature of this lignin at two developmental stages. Histochemical methods (Weisner and Maüle reagents and KMnO4-staining) indicating the(More)