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The aging of spinal cord alpha motoneurons was explored in old cats with intracellular recording techniques to determine the basic membrane properties of these neurons and their monosynaptic response following activation of group Ia afferent fibers. The conduction velocity of the motoneurons' axons decreased in old animals (14 to 15 years of age) compared(More)
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by the occurrence of cyclic snoring and frequent apneic episodes during sleep, with consequent hypoxia and hypercapnia. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with excess daytime sleepiness, depression, and an increased incidence of ischemic cardiopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, systemic hypertension(More)
1. The electrophysiological properties of alpha-motoneurons in old cats (14-15 yr) were compared with those of adult cats (1-3 yr). These properties were measured utilizing intracellular recording and stimulating techniques. 2. Unaltered in the old cat motoneurons were the membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and slopes of the initial segment(More)
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) exhibit hippocampal damage and cognitive deficits. To determine the effect of apnea on the synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, we performed electrophysiological studies in an in vivo guinea pig model of OSA. Specifically, we determined the cornu ammonis region 1 (CA1) field excitatory postsynaptic potential(More)
Mechanisms by which serotonin produces a long duration facilitation of spinal motoneuron excitability were investigated in decerebrate cats using intracellular recording combined with extracellular microiontophoresis. Serotonin was found to produce a slowly developing, small amplitude, long duration depolarization of the spinal motoneurons. This finding(More)
Hypocretin (orexin)-containing neurons in the hypothalamus, which have been implicated in the pathology of narcolepsy, project to nuclei in the brain stem reticular formation that are involved in the control of the behavioral states of sleep and wakefulness. Among these nuclei is the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO). Consequently, the present study was(More)
Intracellular recordings were obtained from lumbar motoneurons in unanesthetized, undrugged, normally respiring cats during the states of wakefulness, quiet sleep and active sleep. The objective was to examine the state-dependent control of spinal cord motoneurons exerted by the pontomesencephalic reticular formation. Accordingly, electrical stimulation was(More)
In trigeminal and hypoglossal motor nuclei of adult cats, hypocretin immunoreactive fiber varicosities were observed in apposition to retrogradely labeled motoneuron somata and dendrites. Among those lateral hypothalamus neurons that project to the hypoglossal nucleus some were determined to be hypocretin immunoreactive and were located amongst the(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related breathing disorders result in recurrent periods of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), hypercapnia and an increase in the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress-related injury). Individuals with these disorders suffer from a variety of cellular abnormalities that result in cardiopulmonary(More)