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Ocean acidification is a well recognised threat to marine ecosystems. High latitude regions are predicted to be particularly affected due to cold waters and naturally low carbonate saturation levels. This is of concern for organisms utilising calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) to generate shells or skeletons. Studies of potential effects of future levels of pCO(2)(More)
Processes interacting across scales of space and time influence emergent patterns in ecological systems, but to obtain strong inference and empirical generalities, ecologists need to balance reality with the practicalities of design and analyses. This article discusses heterogeneity, scaling, and design analysis problems and offers potential solutions to(More)
When changes in the frequency and extent of disturbance outstrip the recovery potential of resident communities, the selective removal of species contributes to habitat loss and fragmentation across landscapes. The degree to which habitat change is likely to influence community resilience will depend on metacommunity structure and connectivity. Thus(More)
FRONT AND BACK COVER: A submarine jungle of giant kelp teems with life in the cool nutrient-rich waters of southern California. Giant kelp—a kind of seaweed—can grow up to two feet (0.61 m) a day and may reach one hundred feet (30 m) in length. Kelp provides sustenance and shelter for a vast array of marine organisms, such as the orange garibaldi and(More)
In marine soft sediments, large organisms are potentially important players in the nonlinear interactions that occur among animals, their food, and their chemical environment, all of which influence the contribution of benthos to ecosystem function. We investigated the consequences of removing large individuals of two functionally contrasting benthic(More)
Recent studies of macrofauna on sandflats have emphasized postsettlement dispersal, particularly associated with sediment bedload transport. This study investigated the short-term (3 weeks) stability in spatial patterns of eight common, potentially mobile, near-surface macrofaunal species inhabiting a 4,000-m2 area of intertidal sandflat. Over this period,(More)
Seafloor habitats throughout the world's oceans are being homogenized by physical disturbance. Even though seafloor sediments are commonly considered to be simple and unstructured ecosystems, the negative impacts of habitat homogenization are widespread because resident organisms create much of their habitat's structure. We combine the insight gained from(More)
Predicting the dynamics of ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic interactions respond to environmental change. In Antarctic marine ecosystems, food web dynamics are inextricably linked to sea ice conditions that affect the nature and magnitude of primary food sources available to higher trophic levels. Recent attention on the changing sea ice(More)
Interaction between the diversity of local communities and the degree of connectivity between them has the potential to influence local recovery rates and thus profoundly affect community dynamics in the face of the cumulative impacts that occur across regions. Although such complex interactions have been modeled, field experiments in natural ecosystems to(More)
Predicting the consequences of species loss is critically important, given present threats to biological diversity such as habitat destruction, overharvesting and climate change. Several empirical studies have reported decreased ecosystem performance (for example, primary productivity) coincident with decreased biodiversity, although the relative influence(More)