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Ocean acidification is a well recognised threat to marine ecosystems. High latitude regions are predicted to be particularly affected due to cold waters and naturally low carbonate saturation levels. This is of concern for organisms utilising calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) to generate shells or skeletons. Studies of potential effects of future levels of pCO(2)(More)
Processes interacting across scales of space and time influence emergent patterns in ecological systems, but to obtain strong inference and empirical generalities, ecologists need to balance reality with the practicalities of design and analyses. This article discusses heterogeneity, scaling, and design analysis problems and offers potential solutions to(More)
FRONT AND BACK COVER: A submarine jungle of giant kelp teems with life in the cool nutrient-rich waters of southern California. Giant kelp—a kind of seaweed—can grow up to two feet (0.61 m) a day and may reach one hundred feet (30 m) in length. Kelp provides sustenance and shelter for a vast array of marine organisms, such as the orange garibaldi and(More)
Interaction between the diversity of local communities and the degree of connectivity between them has the potential to influence local recovery rates and thus profoundly affect community dynamics in the face of the cumulative impacts that occur across regions. Although such complex interactions have been modeled, field experiments in natural ecosystems to(More)
Predicting the consequences of species loss is critically important, given present threats to biological diversity such as habitat destruction, overharvesting and climate change. Several empirical studies have reported decreased ecosystem performance (for example, primary productivity) coincident with decreased biodiversity, although the relative influence(More)
Despite the increasing evidence of drastic and profound changes in many ecosystems, often referred to as regime shifts, we have little ability to understand the processes that provide insurance against such change (resilience). Modelling studies have suggested that increased variance may foreshadow a regime shift, but this requires long-term data and(More)
High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species(More)
The spatial patterns exhibited by soft-bottom macrobenthic organismshave become recognized for their potential to play an importantrole in determining both the ecology of these species and our ability to study it. Recent studies have shown that spatial scales of field sampling or experimentation are important influences on data interpretation. The presence(More)
Recent studies of macrofauna on sandflats have emphasized postsettlement dispersal, particularly associated with sediment bedload transport. This study investigated the short-term (3 weeks) stability in spatial patterns of eight common, potentially mobile, near-surface macrofaunal species inhabiting a 4,000-m2 area of intertidal sandflat. Over this period,(More)
Antarctic sea ice and the cold waters surrounding the continent are key elements of the global climate system, influencing heat redistribution, oceanic circulation and the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, the Southern Ocean is predicted to warm by 1–6°C over the next century, altering sea ice extent, thickness and permanence. To(More)