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Ocean acidification is a well recognised threat to marine ecosystems. High latitude regions are predicted to be particularly affected due to cold waters and naturally low carbonate saturation levels. This is of concern for organisms utilising calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) to generate shells or skeletons. Studies of potential effects of future levels of pCO(2)(More)
FRONT AND BACK COVER: A submarine jungle of giant kelp teems with life in the cool nutrient-rich waters of southern California. Giant kelp—a kind of seaweed—can grow up to two feet (0.61 m) a day and may reach one hundred feet (30 m) in length. Kelp provides sustenance and shelter for a vast array of marine organisms, such as the orange garibaldi and(More)
Interaction between the diversity of local communities and the degree of connectivity between them has the potential to influence local recovery rates and thus profoundly affect community dynamics in the face of the cumulative impacts that occur across regions. Although such complex interactions have been modeled, field experiments in natural ecosystems to(More)
Predicting the consequences of species loss is critically important, given present threats to biological diversity such as habitat destruction, overharvesting and climate change. Several empirical studies have reported decreased ecosystem performance (for example, primary productivity) coincident with decreased biodiversity, although the relative influence(More)
High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species(More)
Antarctic sea ice and the cold waters surrounding the continent are key elements of the global climate system, influencing heat redistribution, oceanic circulation and the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, the Southern Ocean is predicted to warm by 1–6°C over the next century, altering sea ice extent, thickness and permanence. To(More)
The input of terrestrial silt and clay (hereafter mud) into coastal environments can alter sediment grain size distribution affecting the structure and functioning of benthic communities. The relationship between sediment mud content and macrofaunal community structure has been well documented, but not the effects on ecosystem function. In 143 plots from(More)
The relationships between functional linkages within communities and community dynamics are fundamental to biodiversity-stability relationships. By teasing apart the hidden layers within artificial neural networks (ANNs), we developed webs defining how functional groups influence each other's temporal dynamics. ANNs were based on 15 years of bimonthly(More)
It is important to understand the consequences of low level disturbances on the functioning of ecological communities because of the pervasiveness and frequency of this type of environmental change. In this study we investigated the response of a heterogeneous, subtidal, soft-sediment habitat to small experimental additions of organic matter and calcium(More)