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Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive(More)
The enzymic stages of mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation were elucidated some 30-40 years ago. However, the discovery of a membrane-associated multifunctional enzyme of beta-oxidation, a membrane-associated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and characterization of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase system at the protein and at the genetic level has demonstrated(More)
The control of mitochondrial beta-oxidation, including the delivery of acyl moieties from the plasma membrane to the mitochondrion, is reviewed. Control of beta-oxidation flux appears to be largely at the level of entry of acyl groups to mitochondria, but is also dependent on substrate supply. CPTI has much of the control of hepatic beta-oxidation flux, and(More)
We have reviewed all known UK cases of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Among 49 cases with proven 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency, half had been terminated or had died in infancy. The minimum incidence is 1 in 60,000. The frequent occurrence of hypospadias may account for 71% of recognised cases being male. Important common features which emerged(More)
A female infant of nonconsanguineous Indian parents presented at 4 months with a hypoglycemic convulsion. Further episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia were associated with inappropriately elevated plasma insulin concentrations. However, unlike other children with hyperinsulinism, this patient had a persistently elevated blood spot hydroxybutyrylcarnitine(More)
PURPOSE The management of Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia (IIH) in children is challenging and may be associated with complications. We aimed to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic vs. open repair of IIH. METHODS With institutional ethical approval (09SG13), we reviewed the notes of 63 consecutive children who were admitted to a single hospital with the(More)
Mitochondrial beta-oxidation is a complex pathway involving, in the case of saturated straight chain fatty acids of even carbon number, at least 16 proteins which are organized into two functional subdomains; one associated with the inner face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and the other in the matrix. Overall, the pathway is subject to(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured group education programme on biomedical, psychosocial, and lifestyle measures in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. DESIGN Multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care with randomisation at practice level. SETTING 207 general practices in 13 primary care sites in the(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the effect of thoracoscopy in neonates on intraoperative arterial blood gases, compared with open surgery. BACKGROUND Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) can be repaired thoracoscopically, but this may cause hypercapnia and acidosis, which are potentially(More)
Following our identification of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene mutations in PARK6-linked Parkinson's disease (PD), we have recently reported that PINK1 protein localizes to Lewy bodies (LBs) in PD brains. We have used a cellular model system of LBs, namely induction of aggresomes, to determine how a mitochondrial protein, such as PINK1, can(More)