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B7-1 and B7-2 are generally thought to have comparable structures and affinities for their receptors, CD28 and CTLA-4, each of which is assumed to be bivalent. We show instead (1) that B7-2 binds the two receptors more weakly than B7-1, (2) that, relative to its CTLA-4 binding affinity, B7-2 binds CD28 2- to 3-fold more effectively than B7-1, (3) that,(More)
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), which relies on nonradiative energy transfer between luciferase-coupled donors and GFP-coupled acceptors, is emerging as a useful tool for analyzing the quaternary structures of cell-surface molecules. Conventional BRET analyses are generally done at maximal expression levels and single acceptor/donor(More)
Semaphorins, proteins characterized by an extracellular sema domain, regulate axon guidance, immune function and angiogenesis. The crystal structure of SEMA4D (residues 1-657) shows the sema topology to be a seven-bladed beta-propeller, revealing an unexpected homology with integrins. The sema beta-propeller contains a distinctive 77-residue insertion(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are hypothesized to play a key role in the processes of endothelial cell migration and matrix remodeling during angiogenesis. We utilized an in vitro model of microvascular endothelial cell angiogenesis, cells cultured within a collagen matrix, to investigate the MMP profile of endothelial cells undergoing angiogenesis. We(More)
Over the past decade, key protein interactions contributing to T cell antigen recognition have been characterized in molecular detail. These have included interactions involving the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) itself, its coreceptors CD4 and CD8, the accessory molecule CD2, and the costimulatory receptors CD28 and CTLA-4. A clear view is emerging of how(More)
How the T cell receptor engages antigen is known, but not how that 'triggers' intracellular signaling. The first direct support for a mechanism based on the spatial reorganization of signaling proteins, proposed 10 years ago and referred to as the 'kinetic-segregation' model, is now beginning to emerge, along with indications that it may also apply to the(More)
The T cell surface glycoprotein CD8 enhances T cell antigen recognition by binding to MHC class I molecules. We show that human CD8 alphaalpha binds to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 with an extremely low affinity (Kd approximately 0.2 mM at 37 degrees C) and with kinetics that are between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than reported for T cell(More)
The crystal structure of a soluble form of the T lymphocyte antigen CD2 provides the first complete view of the extracellular region of a cell adhesion molecule. The topology of the molecule, which comprises two immunoglobulin-like domains, is the same as that of the first two domains of CD4 but the relative domain orientation is altered by a fairly(More)
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity by activating complement after binding carbohydrate moieties on pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Structural similarities shared by MBL and C1 complexes and by the MBL- and C1q-associated serine proteases, MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-2, and C1r and C1s, respectively,(More)
Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the "glycosylation problem" can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the(More)