Simon D. Norton

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CD4+ T cells require two signals to produce maximal amounts of IL-2, i.e., TCR occupancy and an unidentified APC-derived costimulus. Here we show that this costimulatory signal can be delivered by the T cell molecule CD28. An agonistic anti-CD28 mAb, but not IL-1 and/or IL-6, stimulated T cell proliferation by tetanus toxoid-specific T cells cultured with(More)
Previous studies demonstrated that a human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, NALM-6, failed to stimulate a primary MLR, despite expression of class II MHC and adhesion molecules. Here we demonstrate that this is the result of the fact that NALM-6 cells do not express the ligand for CD28, namely B7. NALM-6 transfectants that expressed high levels(More)
In Th1 clones, TCR occupancy together with a costimulatory signal from APC results in IL-2 production. TCR occupancy alone results in unresponsiveness (anergy) to antigenic stimulation, a phenomenon that may be important for self-tolerance in vivo. Inasmuch as inositol phosphate production occurs during the induction of anergy other biochemical signals must(More)
The activation of Ag-specific, Ia molecule-restricted, TCR V beta 3+ T cell clones by staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), was investigated. The results show that although Ag- and TSST-1-induced activation of T cell clones both require TCR expression and similar biologic activation signals, the Ia molecule requirement for TSST-1 recognition(More)
The costimulatory effects of anti-CD28 antibody or accessory cells on T cells were shown to be very similar. Both stimuli: (a) allowed T cell proliferation and IL-2 production in response to immobilized anti-CD3 antibody or antigen presented by APC whose costimulatory capacity had been damaged by fixation; and (b) stimulated cyclosporin A-resistant T cell(More)
Money laundering has become of increasing concern to law makers in recent years, principally because of its associations with terrorism. Recent legislative changes in the United Kingdom mean that auditors risk becoming state law enforcement agents in the private sector. We examine this legislation from the perspective of the changing nature of the(More)
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