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Natural products are not only the basis for traditional or ethnic medicine. Only recently, they have provided highly successful new drugs such as Artemisinin. Furthermore, screening natural products found in all sorts of environments such as the deep sea, rain forests and hot springs, and produced by all sorts of organisms ranging from bacteria, fungi and(More)
Malaria remains one of the most important diseases of the developing world, killing 1–3 million people and causing disease in 300–500 million people annually. Most severe malaria is caused by the blood-borne APICOMPLEXAN parasite Plasmodium falciparum and occurs in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The two most widely used anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine(More)
Given the role of trypanothione in the redox defenses of pathogenic trypanosomal and leishmanial parasites, in contrast to glutathione for their mammalian hosts, selective inhibitors of trypanothione reductase are potential drug leads against trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. In the present study, the rational drug design approach was used to discover(More)
The in-vitro activities of four anticancer alkyllysophospholipids, ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine), hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine), ilmofosine and SRI 62-834, were determined with ED50 values for Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes between 0.2 and 5.0 microM and for Trypanosoma brucei trypomastigotes between 7.0 and 50.8 microM. In BALB/c(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis is common in less developed countries, with an estimated 500000 new cases each year. Because of the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all. Control measures through case finding, treatment, and vector control are seldom used, even where they could be useful. There(More)
The antiprotozoal activity of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don.) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) was evaluated by in vitro testing against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani. The acetone fraction of the stem bark of this plant prepared by soxhlet extraction was inactive(More)
Several alkyl phosphorylcholines and related derivatives were tested against Leishmania donovani amastigotes in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and ED50 values were determined in the range of 1-12 microM. The three alkyl phosphorylcholines tested against L. donovani in BALB/c mice were active, an ED50 of 12.8 mg/kg/day X 5 was ascertained for one(More)
Trypanothione reductase (TR) is both a valid and an attractive target for the design of new trypanocidal drugs. Starting from menadione, plumbagin, and juglone, three distinct series of 1,4-naphthoquinones (NQ) were synthesized as potential inhibitors of TR from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTR). The three parent molecules were functionalized at carbons 2 and/or 3(More)
New formulations, therapeutic switching of the established drugs amphotericin B and paromomycin, and the serendipitous discovery of miltefosine have markedly improved leishmaniasis chemotherapy in the past 21 years. The situation for the two trypanosomiases has been less encouraging. Apart from the introduction of eflornithine for the treatment of(More)