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The motor cortex is capable of reliably driving complex movements yet exhibits considerable plasticity during motor learning. These observations suggest that the fundamental relationship between motor cortex activity and movement may not be fixed but is instead shaped by learning; however, to what extent and how motor learning shapes this relationship are(More)
The immature brain is exceptionally susceptible to seizures. However, it remains unclear whether seizures occurring during development affect critical processes underlying neural circuit formation, leading to long-term functional consequences. Here we characterize a novel in vivo model system of developmental seizures based on the transparent albino Xenopus(More)
Motor skill learning induces long-lasting reorganization of dendritic spines, principal sites of excitatory synapses, in the motor cortex. However, mechanisms that regulate these excitatory synaptic changes remain poorly understood. Here, using in vivo two-photon imaging in awake mice, we found that learning-induced spine reorganization of layer (L) 2/3(More)
This paper introduces a framework for animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys of clustered populations. The framework generalizes an approach given in Chen (1999, Environmental and Ecological Statistics 6, in press) to accommodate heterogeneity in detection caused by cluster size and other covariates. Both parametric and(More)
Cell adhesion molecules are well characterized for mediating synapse initiation, specification, differentiation, and maturation, yet their contribution to directing dendritic arborization during early brain circuit formation remains unclear. Using two-photon time-lapse imaging of growing neurons within intact and awake embryonic Xenopus brain, we examine(More)
Photo deblurring has been a major research topic in the past few years. So far, existing methods have focused on removing the blur due to camera shake and object motion. In this paper, we show that the optical system of the camera also generates significant blur, even with professional lenses. We introduce a method to estimate the blur kernel densely over(More)
Global change is predicted to cause non-random species loss in plant communities, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. However, beyond the simple effects of plant species richness, little is known about how plant diversity and its loss influence higher trophic levels, which are crucial to the functioning of many species-rich ecosystems. We analyzed(More)
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