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Monoclonal antibody-based two-site immunoradiometric assays are described for human insulin, proinsulin, 65-66 split and 32-33 split proinsulin. The detection limits of the assays lie in the range 0.8-2.5 pM. The assays for 65-66 and 32-33 split proinsulins do not distinguish between these substances and their respective C-terminal di-desamino derivatives.(More)
We compared the effects of human proinsulin and human insulin on glucose disposal, suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP), and intermediary carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Six young, lean, subjects underwent eight separate euglycemic clamps with low-dose intravenous (IV) infusions of insulin and proinsulin (four each). The insulin infusions gave(More)
Glucose intolerant relatives of Type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired insulin secretory responses to glucose but their proinsulin secretion has not been assessed. Plasma intact proinsulin was measured in 101 normoglycaemic and glucose intolerant first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic subjects both fasting and one hour after an infusion of glucose of 5(More)
Seventeen human subjects fasted without electrolyte replacement for 3 days and hormone levels were measured before, during and after the fast. Immediate consequences of the fasting state in healthy human subjects include a marked increase in plasma cortisol. ACTH, beta-endorphin, beta-lipotrophic hormone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. Levels of(More)
C-peptide and proinsulin levels were studied in hyper and hypothyroidism both pre and post-treatment and in comparison to matched normals. Fasting C-peptide was reduced in untreated hyperthyroidism (0.4 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) vs 0.7 +/- 0.2 nmol/l, P less than 0.05) but returned to normal levels following treatment. Fasting proinsulin was elevated in(More)
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