Simon A. Babayan

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In mammalian systems RNA can move between cells via vesicles. Here we demonstrate that the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which infects mice, secretes vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs) and Y RNAs as well as a nematode Argonaute protein. These vesicles are of intestinal origin and are enriched for homologues of mammalian exosome(More)
Type material of Litomosoides hamletti Sandground, 1934 from Glossophaga soricina soricina in Brazil and L. penai Jiménez-Quirós & Arroyo, 1960 from Carollia perspicillata azteca in Costa Rica, was examined. The morphology of the spicules shows that these species belong to the carinii group. Their synonymy with L. guiterasi Pérez Vigueras, 1934, from(More)
To establish the role of B cells and antibodies in destroying filariae, mice lacking mature B cells and therefore unable to produce antibodies were used. Litomosoides sigmodontis offers a good opportunity for this study because it is the only filarial species that completes its life cycle in mice. Its development was compared in B-cell-deficient mice(More)
The T cell coinhibitory receptor CTLA-4 has been implicated in the down-regulation of T cell function that is a quintessential feature of chronic human filarial infections. In a laboratory model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of susceptible BALB/c mice, we have previously shown that susceptibility is linked both to a CD4+ CD25+ regulatory(More)
Wolbachia, endosymbiotic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, are widespread in arthropods but also present in nematodes. In arthropods, A and B supergroup Wolbachia are generally associated with distortion of host reproduction. In filarial nematodes, including some human parasites, multiple lines of experimental evidence indicate that C and D supergroup(More)
In order to understand natural resistance to filariasis, we compared Litomosoides sigmodontis primary infection of C57BL/6 mice, which eliminate the worms before patency, and BALB/c mice, in which worms complete their development and produce microfilariae. Our analysis over the first month of infection monitoredmigration of the infective larvae from the(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short, non-coding RNA can be found in a highly stable, cell-free form in mammalian body fluids. Specific miRNAs are secreted by parasitic nematodes in exosomes and have been detected in the serum of murine and dog hosts infected with the filarial nematodes Litomosoides sigmodontis and Dirofilaria immitis, respectively. Here we(More)
Litomosoides filariae are parasites of unrelated groups of hosts, including bats, marsupials, ancient and modern rodents. The four life cycles to-date elucidated, develop in terrestrial mammals and, at least experimentally, in the mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. A batch of mites was fed on an infected bat, Artibeus jamaicensis captured in Costa Rica, and 18 days(More)
Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future(More)
Our aim in this study was to observe the movements of filarial infective larvae following inoculation into the mammalian host and to assess the effect of vaccination on larval migration, in situ. Here we present recordings of larvae progressing through the subcutaneous tissues and inguinal lymph node of primary infected or vaccinated mice. We used the(More)