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Type material of Litomosoides hamletti Sandground, 1934 from Glossophaga soricina soricina in Brazil and L. penai Jiménez-Quirós & Arroyo, 1960 from Carollia perspicillata azteca in Costa Rica, was examined. The morphology of the spicules shows that these species belong to the carinii group. Their synonymy with L. guiterasi Pérez Vigueras, 1934, from(More)
In mammalian systems RNA can move between cells via vesicles. Here we demonstrate that the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which infects mice, secretes vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs) and Y RNAs as well as a nematode Argonaute protein. These vesicles are of intestinal origin and are enriched for homologues of mammalian exosome(More)
In wild populations, individuals are regularly exposed to a wide range of pathogens. In this context, organisms must elicit and regulate effective immune responses to protect their health while avoiding immunopathology. However, most of our knowledge about the function and dynamics of immune responses comes from laboratory studies performed on inbred mice(More)
The relationship between the number of larvae inoculated and filarial infection outcome is an important fundamental and epidemiological issue. Our study was carried out with BALB/c mice infected with the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis. For the first time, an immunological analysis of infection with various doses was studied in parallel with(More)
To establish the role of B cells and antibodies in destroying filariae, mice lacking mature B cells and therefore unable to produce antibodies were used. Litomosoides sigmodontis offers a good opportunity for this study because it is the only filarial species that completes its life cycle in mice. Its development was compared in B-cell-deficient mice(More)
Litomosoides filariae are parasites of unrelated groups of hosts, including bats, marsupials, ancient and modern rodents. The four life cycles to-date elucidated, develop in terrestrial mammals and, at least experimentally, in the mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. A batch of mites was fed on an infected bat, Artibeus jamaicensis captured in Costa Rica, and 18 days(More)
The T cell coinhibitory receptor CTLA-4 has been implicated in the down-regulation of T cell function that is a quintessential feature of chronic human filarial infections. In a laboratory model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of susceptible BALB/c mice, we have previously shown that susceptibility is linked both to a CD4+ CD25+ regulatory(More)
In order to understand natural resistance to filariasis, we compared Litomosoides sigmodontis primary infection of C57BL/6 mice, which eliminate the worms before patency, and BALB/c mice, in which worms complete their development and produce microfilariae. Our analysis over the first month of infection monitoredmigration of the infective larvae from the(More)
Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future(More)
This paper attempts to pinpoint the most original morphological anatomical features of the biology of filariae per se and those which are or could be important for triggering regulatory processes in the arthropod vector and uncontrolled pathogenic processes in the vertebrate hosts. The following stages are considered: the motile egg or newly-hatched larva,(More)