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Protein evolution depends on intramolecular coevolutionary networks whose complexity is proportional to the underlying functional and structural interactions among sites. Here we present a novel approach that vastly improves the sensitivity of previous methods for detecting coevolution through a weighted comparison of divergence between amino acid sites.(More)
The extent to which prokaryotic evolution has been influenced by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and therefore might be more of a network than a tree is unclear. Here we use supertree methods to ask whether a definitive prokaryotic phylogenetic tree exists and whether it can be confidently inferred using orthologous genes. We analysed an 11-taxon dataset(More)
BACKGROUND The role of HIV-1 RNA in the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) is well documented while less is known about the role of historical viruses stored in the proviral DNA. The primary focus of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity and evolution of HIV drug resistant variants in an individual's provirus during(More)
The "glycan shield" exposed on the surface of the HIV-1 gp120 env glycoprotein has been previously proposed as a novel target for anti-HIV treatments. While such targeting of these glycans provides an exciting prospect for HIV treatment, little is known about the conservation and variability of glycosylation patterns within and between the various HIV-1(More)
The challenge presented by high-throughput sequencing necessitates the development of novel tools for accurate alignment of reads to reference sequences. Current approaches focus on using heuristics to map reads quickly to large genomes, rather than generating highly accurate alignments in coding regions. Such approaches are, thus, unsuited for applications(More)
Currently, the identification of groups of amino acid residues that are important in the function, structure, or interaction of a protein can be both costly and prohibitively complex, involving vast numbers of mutagenesis experiments. Here, we present the application of a novel computational method, which identifies the presence of coevolution in a data(More)
OBJECTIVES South Africa's national antiretroviral (ARV) treatment program expanded in 2010 to include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTI) tenofovir (TDF) for adults and abacavir (ABC) for children. We investigated the associated changes in genotypic drug resistance patterns in patients with first-line ARV treatment failure since the(More)
The env gene of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a functionally important gene responsible for the production of protein products (gp120 and gp41) involved in host cell recognition, binding, and entry. This occurs through a complex and, as yet, not fully understood process of protein-protein interaction and within and between protein functional(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is responsible for more than 55% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. When this subtype first emerged is unknown. We have analyzed all available gag (p17 and p24) and env (C2-V3) subtype C sequences with known sampling dates, which ranged from 1983 to 2000. The majority of these sequences come from the Karonga(More)