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Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit‑8 and lactate(More)
BACKGROUND A limitation of bronchoscopic balloon dilatation (BBD) is that airflow must be completely blocked for as long as possible during the operation. However, the patient often cannot hold his or her breath for a long period affecting the efficacy of the procedure. In this study, we used an extra-small-diameter tube to provide assisted ventilation to(More)
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