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Chemokines are a group of small proteins that have a variety of functions, including the activation and recruitment of immune cells during episodes of inflammation. In common with many cytokines, it has been observed that chemokines have the potential to bind heparin-like glycosaminoglycan molecules, which are normally expressed on proteoglycan components(More)
Human lung alveolar epithelial cells constitutively express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human lung microvascular endothelial and small airway epithelial cells can be induced to express class II MHC by stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. The levels of class II MHC on lung epithelial and endothelial cells were(More)
Despite the capacity for antigen-specific activation and rapid clonal expansion, homeostatic mechanisms ensure that the mature immune system contains a relatively stable number of T cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that this stability is a consequence of apoptotic death of most of the specific T cells generated during an immune response.(More)
Heparan sulphate N-deacetylase/N-sulphotransferase (NDST) enzymes catalyse the reaction that initiates sulphation and subsequent modification of the oligosaccharide, heparan sulphate (HS). The extent and distribution of sulphate substitution on HS plays a vital role in regulation of the binding of a range of proteins, including IFN-gamma, several(More)
SETTING In Pakistan approximately 5.7 million people suffer from tuberculosis, with 260 000 new cases occurring every year. This study was conducted in an outpatient hospital setting in Karachi. OBJECTIVE To explore the level of awareness about tuberculosis amongst patients and their families, and recommend strategies for increasing understanding of the(More)
The vascular and immune systems of mammals are closely intertwined: the individual components of the immune system must move between various body compartments to perform their function effectively. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid mediator, exerts effects on the two organ systems and influences the interaction between them. In the resting(More)
Hydatidosis was seen in 38.90% of cattle, 33.06% of buffaloes and 58.9% of camels slaughtered at a local abattoir. No statistically significant seasonal difference in prevalence was observed. Most cysts (63.14%) were infertile. Protein and carbohydrate contents of fluid from fertile and infertile cysts did not differ significantly. Sensitivity, specificity(More)
The transcription factor FOXP3 is widely known for its role in the development and function of immunoregulatory T cells. However, it has been discovered recently that FOXP3 is also expressed in epithelial cells of the normal human breast, ovary and prostate. Aggressive cancer of these epithelial tissues often correlates with abnormal expression of FOXP3,(More)
A functional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor antagonist specifically inhibited the egress of activated allospecific T cells from draining popliteal lymph nodes in alloantigen-sensitised mice. The level of S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) mRNA was similarly reduced 1 and 3 days after mitogenic activation of T cells. However, the response of these cells to the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety of high dose non-ionic contrast media during a single radiological procedure in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. METHODS One hundred eighteen patients, with serum Creatinine greater than 1.3 mg/dl who were undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography (PTCA) were included in(More)