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Fever has been a preoccupation of clinicians since medicine's beginning. One might therefore expect that basic concepts relating to this physiological response would be well delineated and that such concepts would be widely known. In fact, only in the past several decades has the febrile response been subjected to scientific scrutiny. As a result of recent(More)
We identified zonulin, a novel human protein analogue to the Vibrio cholerae derived Zonula occludens toxin, which induces tight junction disassembly and a subsequent increase in intestinal permeability in non-human primate intestinal epithelia. Zonulin expression was raised in intestinal tissues during the acute phase of coeliac disease, a clinical(More)
Gram-negative bacterial sepsis remains a common, life-threatening event. The prognosis for patients who develop sepsis-related complications, including the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remains poor. A common finding among patients and experimental animals with sepsis and ARDS is endothelial injury and/or dysfunction. A(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is tightly regulated through the actions of both protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. In this study, we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of endothelial cell-cell adherens junction proteins, opens an endothelial paracellular pathway, and(More)
Endogenous polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-associated sialidase activity enhances PMN adhesion to and migration across the endothelium through the removal of sialylated cell-surface residues. We tested the hypothesis that PMNs also express sialyltransferase (ST) activity that restores sialyl residues to the PMN surface. We developed a highly sensitive(More)
The amount of sialic acid on the surface of the neutrophil (PMN) influences its ability to interact with other cells. PMN activation with various stimuli mobilizes intracellular sialidase to the plasma membrane, where it cleaves sialic acid from cell surfaces. Because enhanced PMN adherence, spreading, deformability, and motility each are associated with(More)
Severely head-injured patients are hypermetabolic/hypercatabolic and exhibit many aspects of the postinjury acute-phase response. These patients have hypoalbuminemia, hypozincemia, hypoferremia, hypercupria, fever, and increased synthesis of acute-phase proteins such as ceruloplasmin and higher C-reactive protein levels. It has been suggested that increased(More)
A common finding amongst patients with inhalational anthrax is a paucity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in infected tissues in the face of abundant circulating PMNs. A major virulence determinant of anthrax is edema toxin (ET), which is formed by the combination of two proteins produced by the organism, edema factor (EF), which is an adenyl cyclase,(More)
We previously reported that removal of sialyl residues primed PBMCs to respond to bacterial LPS stimulation in vitro. Therefore, we speculated that prior desialylation can sensitize the host to generate an enhanced inflammatory response upon exposure to a TLR ligand, such as LPS, in a murine model of acute lung injury. Intratracheal instillation of(More)
Sialic acids on glycoconjugates play a pivotal role in many biological processes. In the airways, sialylated glycoproteins and glycolipids are strategically positioned on the plasma membranes of epithelia to regulate receptor-ligand, cell-cell, and host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. We now demonstrate, for the first time, sialidase activity(More)
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