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Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7-10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal vitamin D status for the prevention of osteoporosis has been inferred from examinations of the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration below which there is an increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). OBJECTIVE The objectives of the study were to ascertain whether a threshold for serum 25(OH)D exists below which serum PTH(More)
Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits for which treatments remain elusive. The effects of risperidone (an antipsychotic differing in some of its pharmacological properties from typical agents) on cognitive deficits have not been extensively investigated. Mismatch negativity (MMN), N2 and P3 are cognitive event-related potentials that index(More)
Obesity is associated with alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system. Lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in morbidly obese individuals may be secondary to an alteration in tissue distribution resulting from an increase in adipose mass. Therefore, morbidly obese individuals are expected to need higher doses of vitamin D supplementation(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (1) symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and overall functioning are significantly improved by methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial treatment compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate plus attention(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention (that includes academic assistance and psychotherapy) combined with methylphenidate significantly enhances the academic performance and emotional status of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and with(More)
OBJECTIVE To test that methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes social skills training, significantly enhances social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and methylphenidate plus nonspecific psychosocial treatment (attention(More)
BACKGROUND Reports on the dose response to vitamin D are conflicting, and most data were derived from white men and women. OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine the response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to oral vitamin D(3) supplementation in an African American population. DESIGN Healthy black postmenopausal women (n = 208) participated in(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to test the hypothesis that vitamin D(3) supplementation would prevent bone loss in calcium-replete, African American postmenopausal women. METHODS Two hundred eight healthy black postmenopausal women, 50 to 75 years of age, were assigned to receive either placebo or 20 microg/d(More)
BACKGROUND Indirect evidence suggests that optimal vitamin D status is achieved with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration >75 nmol/L. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the intake of vitamin D(3) needed to raise serum 25(OH)D to >75 nmol/L. DESIGN The design was a 6-mo, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy,(More)