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Asthma exacerbations can be triggered by viral infections or allergens. The Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4 are produced during allergic responses and cause increases in airway epithelial cell mucus and electrolyte and water secretion into the airway surface liquid (ASL). Since ASL dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction, ion transporters(More)
RATIONALE Macrophages are believed to play a central role in emphysema based largely on data from mouse models. However, the relevance of these models to smoking-related lung disease in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES We sought to comprehensively characterize the effects of smoking on gene expression in human alveolar macrophages and to compare these with(More)
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is elevated in asthma and triggers dendritic cell-mediated activation of Th2 inflammatory responses. Although TSLP has been shown to be produced mainly by airway epithelial cells, the regulation of epithelial TSLP expression has not been extensively studied. We investigated the expression of TSLP in cytokine- or TLR(More)
Elevated blood and tissue CO(2), or hypercapnia, is common in severe lung disease. Patients with hypercapnia often develop lung infections and have an increased risk of death following pneumonia. To explore whether hypercapnia interferes with host defense, we studied the effects of elevated P(CO2) on macrophage innate immune responses. In differentiated(More)
BACKGROUND Induction of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) has been observed in the airways of subjects with asthma, although its physiologic role in the airways has remained largely undefined. OBJECTIVES We sought to test the hypothesis that the mouse 15-LO-1 ortholog 12/15-LO contributes to the development of allergic airways inflammation. METHODS Two models(More)
Mammalian cell invasion assays, using metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi G and CL strains, showed that the CL strain enters target cells in several-fold higher numbers as compared with the G strain. Analysis of expression of surface glycoproteins in metacyclic forms of the two strains by iodination, immunoprecipitation and FACS, revealed that(More)
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans that resides commensally on epithelial surfaces, but can cause inflammation when pathogenic. Resolvins are a class of anti-inflammatory lipids derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that attenuate neutrophil migration during the resolution phase of inflammation. In this report(More)
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings made during studies of the upper airways and sinuses of people with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the context of the literature. CRS is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 30 million Americans and is generally resistant to therapy with antibiotics and glucocorticoids (Meltzer EO and(More)
BACKGROUND Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) characteristically cause upper respiratory tract infection, but they also infect the lower airways, causing acute bronchitis and exacerbating asthma. OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to study ex vivo the differences in the response to HRV infection of nasal and bronchial epithelial cultures from the same healthy and asthmatic(More)
The IL-1 family of cytokines, which now includes 11 members, is well known to participate in inflammation. Although the most recently recognized IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1F5-11) have been shown to be expressed in airway epithelial cells, the regulation of their expression and function in the epithelium has not been extensively studied. We investigated the(More)