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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes, the loading of the replicative helicase MCM2-7 onto DNA requires the combined activities of ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1. These proteins load MCM2-7 in an unknown way into a double hexamer around DNA. Here we show that MCM2-7 recruitment by ORC/Cdc6 is blocked by an autoinhibitory domain in the C terminus of Mcm6.(More)
Eukaryotic cells license each DNA replication origin during G1 phase by assembling a prereplication complex that contains a Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance proteins 2-7) double hexamer. During S phase, each Mcm2-7 hexamer forms the core of a replicative DNA helicase. However, the mechanisms of origin licensing and helicase activation are poorly(More)
The regulated loading of the replicative helicase minichromosome maintenance proteins 2-7 (MCM2-7) onto replication origins is a prerequisite for replication fork establishment and genomic stability. Origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6, and Cdt1 assemble two MCM2-7 hexamers into one double hexamer around dsDNA. Although the MCM2-7 hexamer can adopt a(More)
The replicative mini-chromosome-maintenance 2-7 (MCM2-7) helicase is loaded in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes as a head-to-head double-hexamer around origin DNA. At first, ORC/Cdc6 recruits with the help of Cdt1 a single MCM2-7 hexamer to form an 'initial' ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex. Then, on ATP hydrolysis and Cdt1 release, the 'initial'(More)
A central step in eukaryotic initiation of DNA replication is the loading of the helicase at replication origins, misregulation of this reaction leads to DNA damage and genome instability. Here we discuss how the helicase becomes recruited to origins and loaded into a double-hexamer around double-stranded DNA. We specifically describe the individual steps(More)
The eukaryotic DNA replication initiation factor Mcm10 is essential for both replisome assembly and function. Human Mcm10 has two DNA-binding domains, the conserved internal domain (ID) and the C-terminal domain (CTD), which is specific to metazoans. SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase that belongs to the sirtuin family.(More)
A crucial step during eukaryotic initiation of DNA replication is the correct loading and activation of the replicative DNA helicase, which ensures that each replication origin fires only once. Unregulated DNA helicase loading and activation, as it occurs in cancer, can cause severe DNA damage and genomic instability. The essential mini-chromosome(More)
Proper chromosome segregation during meiosis requires the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) between homologous chromosomes. However, the SC structure itself is indifferent to homology, and poorly understood mechanisms that depend on conserved HORMA-domain proteins prevent ectopic SC assembly. Although HORMA-domain proteins are thought to regulate SC(More)
During G1-phase of the cell-cycle the replicative MCM2-7 helicase becomes loaded onto DNA into pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), resulting in MCM2-7 double-hexamers on DNA. In S-phase, Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and cyclin-dependent-kinase (CDK) direct with the help of a large number of helicase-activation factors the assembly of a Cdc45-MCM2-7-GINS(More)
The function and regulation of repetitive DNA, the 'dark matter' of the genome, is still only rudimentarily understood. Now a study investigating DNA replication of repetitive centromeric chromosome segments has started to expose a fascinating replication program that involves suppression of ATR signalling, in particular during replication stress.