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Exposure to stressful events has a myriad of consequences in animals and in humans, and triggers synaptic adaptations in many brain areas. Stress might also alter cannabinoid-receptor-mediated transmission in the brain, but no physiological study has addressed this issue so far. In the present study, we found that social defeat stress, induced in mice by(More)
Of the endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) have received the most study. A functional interaction between these molecules has never been described. Using mouse brain slices, we found that stimulation of metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) depressed inhibitory transmission in the(More)
Neurodegeneration is the irremediable pathological event occurring during chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS. Here we show that, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, inflammation is capable in enhancing glutamate transmission in the striatum and in promoting synaptic degeneration and dendritic spine(More)
The ability of cannabinoids to modulate both inflammatory and degenerative neuronal damage prompted investigations on the potential benefits of such compounds in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in animal models of this disorder. Here we measured endocannabinoid levels, metabolism and binding, and physiological activities in 26 patients with MS (17 females, aged(More)
Since their discovery in the mammalian CNS, D-aspartate and D-serine have aroused a strong interest with regard to their role as putative neuromodulatory molecules. Whereas the functional role of D-serine as an endogenous coagonist of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) has been elucidated, the biological significance of D-aspartate in the brain is still mostly(More)
BACKGROUND Structural and functional neuroimaging studies suggest abnormal activity in the striatum of patients with the fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation. METHODS Neurophysiological and immunofluorescence experiments in striatal brain slices. We studied the synaptic transmission in a mouse model for FXS, as(More)
Voluntary exercise is beneficial in models of primarily neurodegenerative disorders. Whether exercise also affects inflammatory neurodegeneration is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical, synaptic and neuropathological effects of voluntary wheel running in mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are chronic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), featured by a complex interplay between inflammation and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence supports the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in both inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typical of these(More)
The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to(More)
Among the chitosan derivatives, trimethylchitosan (TMC) has been shown to have penetration enhancement properties also in intestinal environment. In addition, the use of nanoparticulate systems has the advantage of protecting peptidic drugs from intestinal degradations, due to internalisation behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to evaluate(More)