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These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected(More)
Of the endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) have received the most study. A functional interaction between these molecules has never been described. Using mouse brain slices, we found that stimulation of metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) depressed inhibitory transmission in the(More)
BACKGROUND Survival and cure rates for childhood cancers in Europe have greatly improved over the past 40 years and are mostly good, although not in all European countries. The EUROCARE-5 survival study estimates survival of children diagnosed with cancer between 2000 and 2007, assesses whether survival differences among European countries have changed, and(More)
Neurodegeneration is the irremediable pathological event occurring during chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS. Here we show that, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, inflammation is capable in enhancing glutamate transmission in the striatum and in promoting synaptic degeneration and dendritic spine(More)
OBJECTIVE Using digitized M-mode and Doppler echocardiography, we evaluated left ventricular (LV) function in 54 patients (43 women and 11 men; mean age 50 years) suffering from active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without obvious cardiovascular disease, and compared them with 54 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS No differences were found in LV(More)
Compelling evidence indicates that endocannabinoids are implicated in drug addiction. In the present study, we have addressed the interaction between cocaine and endocannabinoid system by means of neurochemical and neurophysiological experiments in rat brain slices. Using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry, we have found that cocaine(More)
Exposure to stressful events has a myriad of consequences in animals and in humans, and triggers synaptic adaptations in many brain areas. Stress might also alter cannabinoid-receptor-mediated transmission in the brain, but no physiological study has addressed this issue so far. In the present study, we found that social defeat stress, induced in mice by(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare clinical evaluation and ultrasonography (US) in the assessment of joint synovitis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS Thirty-two patients underwent clinical evaluation of 52 joints by 2 pediatric rheumatologists. Joints were assessed for swelling, tenderness/pain on motion, and restricted motion. The same(More)
Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) regulate the neurodegenerative damage of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanism by which CB1R stimulation exerts protective effects is still unclear. Here we show that pharmacological activation of CB1Rs dampens the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-mediated potentiation(More)
Since their discovery in the mammalian CNS, D-aspartate and D-serine have aroused a strong interest with regard to their role as putative neuromodulatory molecules. Whereas the functional role of D-serine as an endogenous coagonist of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) has been elucidated, the biological significance of D-aspartate in the brain is still mostly(More)