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Data from perinatal and juvenile rodents support our hypothesis that the preBötzinger complex generates inspiratory rhythm and the retrotrapezoid nucleus-parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) generates active expiration (AE). Although the role of the RTN/pFRG in adulthood is disputed, we hypothesized that its rhythmogenicity persists but is typically(More)
The aim of this study was to provide a systematic examination of the ontogenesis of the mammalian respiratory rhythm generating center, the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC). A combination of immunohistochemical markers and electrophysiological recordings was used to determine the time of inception of the pre-BötC and the developmental changes during the(More)
Necdin (Ndn) is one of a cluster of genes deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Ndntm2Stw mutant mice die shortly after birth because of abnormal respiratory rhythmogenesis generated by a key medullary nucleus, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). Here, we address two fundamental issues relevant to its pathogenesis. First,(More)
Lbx1 is a transcription factor that determines neuronal cell fate and identity in the developing medulla and spinal cord. Newborn Lbx1 mutant mice die of respiratory distress during the early postnatal period. Using in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations we tested the hypothesis that Lbx1 is necessary for the inception, development and modulation of(More)
Sighs are long, deep breaths expressing sadness, relief or exhaustion. Sighs also occur spontaneously every few minutes to reinflate alveoli, and sighing increases under hypoxia, stress, and certain psychiatric conditions. Here we use molecular, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches to identify a peptidergic sigh control circuit in murine brain. Small(More)
The preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) contains neural microcircuitry essential for normal respiratory rhythm generation in rodents. A subpopulation of preBötC neurons expresses somatostatin, a neuropeptide with a modulatory action on breathing. Acute silencing of a subpopulation of preBötC neurons transfected by a virus driving protein expression under the(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the antiproliferative agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) is able to induce in rats cerebral heterotopia that share striking similarities with those observed in human periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), a cerebral dysgenesis frequently observed in human patients affected by drug-resistant focal epilepsy. In(More)
Double intraperitoneal injections of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) in pregnant rats induce developmental brain dysgenesis with nodular heterotopia similar to human periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and composed of hyperexcitable neurons. Here we analyzed the NMDA receptor complex and associated proteins in the heterotopic neurons of 2- to 3-month-old(More)
Respiratory activity is most fragile during sleep, in particular during paradoxical [or rapid eye movement (REM)] sleep and sleep state transitions. Rats are commonly used to study respiratory neuromodulation, but rodent sleep is characterized by a highly fragmented sleep pattern, thus making it very challenging to examine different sleep states and(More)
The pre-natal administration of methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) in rats is able to induce cerebral heterotopia that share striking similarities with those observed in human periventricular nodular heterotopia, a cerebral dysgenesis frequently associated with drug-resistant focal seizures. In the present study, we investigated the mode of neurogenesis in(More)