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The aim of this study was to provide a systematic examination of the ontogenesis of the mammalian respiratory rhythm generating center, the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC). A combination of immunohistochemical markers and electrophysiological recordings was used to determine the time of inception of the pre-BötC and the developmental changes during the(More)
Subunits of glutamate receptors participate in the regulation of sensory transmission at primary afferent synapses in the superficial laminae of dorsal horn (DH). We report here on the distribution of kainate receptors (GluR5/6/7) in these laminae by using light microscope (LM) and electron microscope (EM) immunocytochemistry. Standard (4%) paraformaldehyde(More)
Data from perinatal and juvenile rodents support our hypothesis that the preBötzinger complex generates inspiratory rhythm and the retrotrapezoid nucleus-parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) generates active expiration (AE). Although the role of the RTN/pFRG in adulthood is disputed, we hypothesized that its rhythmogenicity persists but is typically(More)
Lbx1 is a transcription factor that determines neuronal cell fate and identity in the developing medulla and spinal cord. Newborn Lbx1 mutant mice die of respiratory distress during the early postnatal period. Using in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations we tested the hypothesis that Lbx1 is necessary for the inception, development and modulation of(More)
Sighs are long, deep breaths expressing sadness, relief or exhaustion. Sighs also occur spontaneously every few minutes to reinflate alveoli, and sighing increases under hypoxia, stress, and certain psychiatric conditions. Here we use molecular, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches to identify a peptidergic sigh control circuit in murine brain. Small(More)
The subcellular localization of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, encoded by the spinal muscular atrophy determining gene, was investigated in motor neurons of the developing and adult rat spinal cord by light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry. The experiments were carried out with a panel of anti-SMN antibodies, all recognizing an(More)
The preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) contains neural microcircuitry essential for normal respiratory rhythm generation in rodents. A subpopulation of preBötC neurons expresses somatostatin, a neuropeptide with a modulatory action on breathing. Acute silencing of a subpopulation of preBötC neurons transfected by a virus driving protein expression under the(More)
Double intraperitoneal injections of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) in pregnant rats induce developmental brain dysgenesis with nodular heterotopia similar to human periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and composed of hyperexcitable neurons. Here we analyzed the NMDA receptor complex and associated proteins in the heterotopic neurons of 2- to 3-month-old(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the antiproliferative agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) is able to induce in rats cerebral heterotopia that share striking similarities with those observed in human periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), a cerebral dysgenesis frequently observed in human patients affected by drug-resistant focal epilepsy. In(More)
We have investigated the distribution of NMDA and neurotrophin receptor systems and their reciprocal interactions in post-synaptic densities (PSD) purified from spinal cord. NMDA receptor subunits, trkA and trkB, but not trkC, were present in spinal cord PSD. The incubation of PSD with BDNF and NGF induced the phosphorylation of NR2A and B subunits. This(More)