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Early development of mammalian embryos occurs in an environment of relative hypoxia. Nevertheless, human embryonic stem cells (hESC), which are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst, are routinely cultured under the same atmospheric conditions (21% O(2)) as somatic cells. We hypothesized that O(2) levels modulate gene expression and differentiation(More)
OBJECTIVE Mice with complete deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) develop hyperglycemia, impaired hepatic insulin signaling, and elevated gluconeogenesis, whereas mice deficient for protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B display an opposing hepatic phenotype characterized by increased sensitivity to insulin. To define the relationship between these(More)
The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor frequently inactivated in human tumors, therefore restoring its function has been considered an attractive approach to restrain cancer. Classically, p53-dependent growth arrest, senescence and apoptosis of tumor cells have been attributed to transcriptional activity of nuclear p53. Notably, wild-type p53(More)
OBJECTIVE The tumor suppressor p53 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, two key processes in the pathogenesis of occlusive vascular disease. Here, we examined the consequences of heightening p53 function on neointimal lesion formation in the setting of atherosclerosis and mechanical injury. METHODS For this study we employed immunohistopathological(More)
While quiescence is a defining characteristic of differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) residing within the medial layer of elastic arteries in the adult organism, mature VSMCs can undergo phenotypic modulation and reenter the cell cycle in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. Abnormal VSMC proliferation is thought to(More)
Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) mediates peripheral insulin action and is essential for retinal health. Previous investigations have reported severe photoreceptor degeneration and abnormal visual function in Irs2-deficient mice. However, molecular changes in the Irs2(-)(/)(-) mouse retina have not been described. In this study, we examined retinal(More)
This is an uncopyedited electronic version of an article accepted for publication in Diabetes. The American Diabetes Association, publisher of Diabetes, is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it by third parties. The definitive publisher-authenticated version will be available in a future(More)
We have studied the global risk of retinopathy in a Mediterranean population of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, according to clinical, biochemical, and lifestyle biomarkers. The effects of the oral supplementation containing antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) were also evaluated. Suitable participants were distributed into two main groups:(More)
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