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The body's surfaces form the interface with the external environment, protecting the host. These epithelial barriers are also colonized by a controlled diversity of microorganisms, disturbances of which can give rise to disease. Specialized intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), which reside at these sites, are important as a first line of defense as well as(More)
Lactococci are noninvasive lactic acid bacteria frequently used as protein delivery vectors and, more recently, as DNA delivery vehicles. We previously showed that Lactococcus lactis (LL) expressing the Fibronectin-Binding Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (LL-FnBPA+) showed higher internalization rates in vitro in Caco-2 cells than the native (wt)(More)
In this study, we compared immune responses elicited by DNA immunization using Lactococcus lactis or L. lactis expressing the Staphylococcus aureus invasin Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) at its surface. Both strains carried pValac:BLG, a plasmid containing the cDNA of Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG), and were designated LL-BLG and LL-FnBPA+ BLG(More)
The discovery of Th17 cell plasticity, in which CD4(+) IL-17-producing Th17 cells give rise to IL-17/IFN-γ double-producing cells and Th1-like IFNγ(+) ex-Th17 lymphocytes, has raised questions regarding which of these cell types contribute to immunopathology during inflammatory diseases. In this study, we show using Helicobacter hepaticus-induced intestinal(More)
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