Learn More
Obesity is associated mainly with adipose cell enlargement in adult man (hypertrophic obesity), whereas the formation of new fat cells (hyperplastic obesity) predominates in the prepubertal age. Adipose cell size, independent of body mass index, is negatively correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity. Here, we review recent findings linking(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish a method for isolation and culture of subcutaneous microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC) from small human tissue biopsies to compare gene and protein expression of insulin signaling molecules in MVEC from insulin-resistant and healthy control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Stromavascular cells from subcutaneous needle(More)
CONTEXT Visfatin was recently reported to be expressed in human adipose tissue and to exert insulin-mimicking effects. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine whether visfatin is a true adipokine and is expressed in isolated fat cells. We also examined whether visfatin is regulated by thiazolidinediones and, thus, can contribute to the(More)
The adipose tissue is crucial in regulating insulin sensitivity and risk for diabetes through its lipid storage capacity and thermogenic and endocrine functions. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) stores excess lipids through expansion of adipocytes (hypertrophic obesity) and/or recruitment of new precursor cells (hyperplastic obesity). Hypertrophic obesity(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZD) improve insulin sensitivity in human as well as in different animal models of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. However, no clear link to the insulin signaling events has been identified. Using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we found that TZD rapidly and markedly increased IRS-2 gene expression. This effect was specific for(More)
Astrocytes participate in central nervous system injury, degenerative diseases and also perform macrophagic functions. The present work investigates: 1) the effect of the physiological glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) and the synthetic agonist dexamethasone (DEX) on latex beads phagocytosis by neonatal rat cortical astrocytes in culture, and 2) the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS We examined whether short-term treatment with a thiazolidinedione improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese but insulin-resistant subjects and whether this is associated with an improvement in dysregulated adipose tissue (reduced expression of IRS-1, GLUT4, PPARgamma co-activator 1 and markers of terminal differentiation) that we have(More)
Inability to recruit new adipose cells following weight gain leads to inappropriate enlargement of existing cells (hypertrophic obesity) associated with inflammation and a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We found increased expression of WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP2) and other markers of WNT activation in human abdominal s.c. adipose(More)
Isolated rat pancreatic islets were incubated at 3.3 (low) and 16.7 (high) mM glucose with different concentrations of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, peroxovanadate (pV). At low glucose, pV stimulated insulin secretion 2- to 4-fold, but it inhibited insulin secretion at 16.7 mM. The latter effect was not due to an inhibition of glucose(More)
The ability of the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha, and platelet-derived growth factor to exert insulin-like effects on glucose transport and lipolysis were examined in human and rat fat cells. No effects were found in rat fat cells, whereas EGF (EC(50) for glucose transport approximately 0.02 nm) and(More)