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The biomechanical conditions for walking in the stick insect require a modeling approach that is based on the control of pairs of antagonistic motoneuron (MN) pools for each leg joint by independent central pattern generators (CPGs). Each CPG controls a pair of antagonistic MN pools. Furthermore, specific sensory feedback signals play an important role in(More)
The mechanism underlying the generation of stepping has been the object of intensive studies. Stepping involves the coordinated movement of different leg joints and is, in the case of insects, produced by antagonistic muscle pairs. In the stick insect, the coordinated actions of three such antagonistic muscle pairs produce leg movements and determine the(More)
The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms that control leg coordination in hexapeds. We analysed inter-leg coordination in C. morosus that freely walked on straight paths on plane(More)
The coordination of the movement of single and multiple limbs is essential for the generation of locomotion. Movement about single joints and the resulting stepping patterns are usually generated by the activity of antagonistic muscle pairs. In the stick insect, the three major muscle pairs of a leg are the protractor and retractor coxae, the levator and(More)
Models built using mean data can represent only a very small percentage, or none, of the population being modeled, and produce different activity than any member of it. Overcoming this “averaging” pitfall requires measuring, in single individuals in single experiments, all of the system’s defining characteristics. We have developed protocols that allow all(More)
Recent experiments, reported in the accompanying paper, have supplied key data on the impact afferent excitation has on the activity of the levator–depressor motor system of an extremity in the stick insect. The main finding was that, stimulation of the campaniform sensillae of the partially amputated middle leg in an animal where all other but one front(More)
This article presents the use of continuous dynamic models in the form of differential equations to describe and predict temporal changes in biological processes and discusses several of its important advantages over discontinuous bistable ones, exemplified on the stick insect walking system. In this system, coordinated locomotion is produced by concerted(More)
Insect locomotion requires the precise coordination of the movement of all six legs. Detailed investigations have revealed that the movement of the legs is controlled by local dedicated neuronal networks, which interact to produce walking of the animal. The stick insect is well suited to experimental investigations aimed at understanding the mechanisms of(More)
Animal locomotion requires highly coordinated working of the segmental neuronal networks that control the limb movements. Experiments have shown that sensory signals originating from the extremities play a pivotal role in controlling locomotion patterns by acting on central networks. Based on the results from stick insect locomotion, we constructed an(More)
Legged locomotion requires that information local to one leg, and inter-segmental signals coming from the other legs are processed appropriately to establish a coordinated walking pattern. However, very little is known about the relative importance of local and inter-segmental signals when they converge upon the central pattern generators (CPGs) of(More)