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The conserved transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is a key sensor of proteotoxic and other stress in the eukaryotic cytosol. We surveyed Hsf1 activity in a genome-wide loss-of-function library in Saccaromyces cerevisiae as well as ~78,000 double mutants and found Hsf1 activity to be modulated by highly diverse stresses. These included(More)
RNA has a dual role as an informational molecule and a direct effector of biological tasks. The latter function is enabled by RNA's ability to adopt complex secondary and tertiary folds and thus has motivated extensive computational and experimental efforts for determining RNA structures. Existing approaches for evaluating RNA structure have been largely(More)
Ribosome profiling data report on the distribution of translating ribosomes, at steady-state, with codon-level resolution. We present a robust method to extract codon translation rates and protein synthesis rates from these data, and identify causal features associated with elongation and translation efficiency in physiological conditions in yeast. We show(More)
The human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the most common and diverse respiratory pathogens of humans. Over 100 distinct HRV serotypes are known, yet only 6 genomes are available. Due to the paucity of HRV genome sequence, little is known about the genetic diversity within HRV or the forces driving this diversity. Previous comparative genome sequence analyses(More)
Coupling of structure-specific in vivo chemical modification to next-generation sequencing is transforming RNA secondary structure studies in living cells. The dominant strategy for detecting in vivo chemical modifications uses reverse transcriptase truncation products, which introduce biases and necessitate population-average assessments of RNA structure.(More)
Bacterial mRNAs are organized into operons consisting of discrete open reading frames (ORFs) in a single polycistronic mRNA. Individual ORFs on the mRNA are differentially translated, with rates varying as much as 100-fold. The signals controlling differential translation are poorly understood. Our genome-wide mRNA secondary structure analysis indicated(More)
BACKGROUND Between 50% and 80% of asthma exacerbations are associated with viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs), yet the influence of viral pathogen diversity on asthma outcomes is poorly understood because of the limited scope and throughput of conventional viral detection methods. METHODS We investigated the capability of the Virochip, a DNA(More)
A pan-viral DNA microarray, the Virochip (University of California, San Francisco), was used to detect human parainfluenzavirus 4 (HPIV-4) infection in an immunocompetent adult presenting with a life-threatening acute respiratory illness. The virus was identified in an endotracheal aspirate specimen, and the microarray results were confirmed by specific(More)
A pan-virus DNA microarray (Virochip) was used to detect a human metapneumovirus (hMPV) strain associated with a critical respiratory tract infection in an elderly adult with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This infection had previously eluded diagnosis despite extensive microbiological testing for possible etiologic agents. The patient's hMPV strain did not(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the utility of a panviral DNA microarray platform (Virochip) in the detection of viruses associated with pediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs). STUDY DESIGN The Virochip was compared with conventional direct fluorescent antibody (DFA)- and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing for the detection of respiratory viruses in(More)
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