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INTRODUCTION GPR109A is the receptor mediating both the antilipolytic and vasodilatory effects of nicotinic acid. In order to develop agonists for GPR109A with improved therapeutic indices we have sought to optimize animal models that evaluate both nicotinic acid-mediated inhibition of lipolysis and stimulation of vasodilatation. The rat and the dog have(More)
Up-regulation of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined during the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat. iNOS enzymatic activity, measured in spleen tissue, appeared and increased coincidentally with the appearance and degree of paw swelling and joint destruction in this arthritis model, when measured on days 0(More)
Novel 1-(2-aminopyrazin-3-yl)methyl-2-thioureas are described as inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2). These compounds demonstrate potent in vitro activity against the enzyme with IC(50) values as low as 15 nM, and suppress expression of TNFalpha in THP-1 cells and in vivo in an acute inflammation model in mice.(More)
The effects of beta-3 adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) agonists on gastrointestinal (GI) motility, as reported by stomach retention and intestinal transit of radiolabelled charcoal, were compared in wild-type (WT) mice and in transgenic mice lacking beta3-AR (beta3-AR[KO]) or having beta3-AR in white and brown adipose tissue only (beta3-AR[WAT+BAT]). After(More)
A potent, reversible, tetrapeptide inhibitor of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), L-709,049, has been shown to suppress the in vitro production of mature IL-1 beta. We now report that this inhibitor also effectively suppresses the production of mature IL-1 beta in a murine model of endotoxic shock. Intraperitoneal administration of L-709,049(More)
Novel potent and selective diarylimidazole inhibitors of p38 MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase are described which have activity in both cell-based assays of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release and an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The SAR leading to the development of selectivity against c-Raf and JNK2alpha1 kinases is presented,(More)
The p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway is an important regulator of proinflammatory cytokine production and inflammation. Defining the roles of the various p38 family members, specifically p38alpha and p38beta, in these processes has been difficult. Here we use a chemical genetics approach using knock-in mice in which either p38alpha or p38beta(More)
The purinergic receptor P2Y(13) has been shown to play a role in the uptake of holo-HDL particles in in vitro hepatocyte experiments. In order to determine the role of P2Y(13) in lipoprotein metabolism in vivo, we ablated the expression of this gene in mice. Here we show that P2Y(13) knockout mice have lower fecal concentrations of neutral sterols(More)
The use of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases is limited by associated metabolic side effects, including muscle atrophy. Therefore, selective glucocorticoid receptor-(GR)-binding ligands that maintain anti-inflammatory activity and demonstrate diminished side-effect profiles would have great therapeutic utility.(More)