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BACKGROUND HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often managed without routine laboratory monitoring in Africa; however, the effect of this approach is unknown. This trial investigated whether routine toxicity and efficacy monitoring of HIV-infected patients receiving ART had an important long-term effect on clinical outcomes in Africa. METHODS In this(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertension is an important contributor to global burden of disease and mortality, and is a growing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. However, most sub-Saharan African countries lack detailed countrywide data on hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors that would provide benchmark information for design of(More)
In a randomized comparison of nevirapine or abacavir with zidovudine plus lamivudine, routine viral load monitoring was not performed, yet 27% of individuals with viral failure at week 48 experienced resuppression by week 96 without switching. This supports World Health Organization recommendations that suspected viral failure should trigger adherence(More)
INTRODUCTION Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene-environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall(More)
CanCer Heart disease & stroke diabetes CHroniC respiratory disease Why do we need these guidelines? ■ Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) affect the poor as well as the affluent. ■ Strokes, heart attacks, complications of diabetes and chronic lung disease entrench people in poverty as a result of catastrophic health expenditure and loss of gainful employment.(More)
BACKGROUND Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living in rural and urban Ghana and Ghanaian migrants(More)
OBJECTIVE We analysed fasting blood glucose (FBG) and other data collected as part of a population-based nationwide non-communicable disease risk factor survey, to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and diabetes mellitus and to identify associated factors in Uganda. METHODS The nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted(More)
Blood glucose, plasma concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and thyroid hormones were measured in nonobese and obese human subjects at 30 and 22 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), and temperatures in the external auditory meatus (Tc) and on the skin surface(More)
BACKGROUND Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. METHODS PA data were collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calculated the(More)
AIM People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing depression and other psychological disorders. However, little is known about the prevalence, correlates or care pathways in countries other than the UK and the USA. A new study, the International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression Study (INTERPRET-DD) aims to address this(More)