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Plasticity and functional polarization are hallmarks of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here we review emerging key properties of different forms of macrophage activation and polarization (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c), which represent extremes of a continuum. In particular, recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. ChemR23 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related to chemokine receptors, which is expressed specifically in these cell types. Here we present the characterization of chemerin, a novel chemoattractant(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is crucial for leukocyte function, but the roles of the four receptor-activated isoforms are unclear. Mice lacking heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled PI3Kgamma were viable and had fully differentiated neutrophils and macrophages. Chemoattractant-stimulated PI3Kgamma-/- neutrophils(More)
Chemerin is a chemotactic agonist recently identified as the ligand of ChemR23, a serpentine receptor expressed by mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). This study shows that blood CD56(low)CD16(+) natural killer (NK) cells selectively express functional ChemR23 and that this receptor is coexpressed with CXCR1, the CXCL8 receptor, and the KIR(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that patrol tissues to sense danger signals and activate specific immune responses. In addition, they also play a role in inflammation and tissue repair. Here, we show that oxygen availability is necessary to promote full monocyte-derived DC differentiation and maturation. Low oxygen(More)
Monocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface markers and flow cytometry, and subpopulations have been described. The(More)
IL-8 and related Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR+) CXC chemokines are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils but not for monocytes. IL-13 and IL-4 strongly increased CXCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine receptor expression in human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The effect was receptor- and cell type-selective, in that CCRs were not increased and no augmentation was(More)
Chemerin is a chemotactic agent that was recently identified as the ligand of ChemR23, a serpentine receptor expressed by activated macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). This paper shows that blood plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs express functional ChemR23. Recombinant chemerin induced the transmigration of plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs across(More)
Psoriasis is a type I interferon-driven T cell-mediated disease characterized by the recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) into the skin. The molecules involved in pDC accumulation in psoriasis lesions are unknown. Chemerin is the only inflammatory chemotactic factor that is directly active on human blood pDC in vitro. The aim of this study was(More)
OBJECT The clinical outcome of patients with severe head injuries is still critically dependent on their secondary injuries. Although hypoxia and hypotension appear to mediate a substantial proportion of secondary injuries, many studies associate secondary brain injury with neuroinflammatory responses. Chemokines have been detected in the cerebrospinal(More)