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Plasticity and functional polarization are hallmarks of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here we review emerging key properties of different forms of macrophage activation and polarization (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c), which represent extremes of a continuum. In particular, recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is crucial for leukocyte function, but the roles of the four receptor-activated isoforms are unclear. Mice lacking heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled PI3Kgamma were viable and had fully differentiated neutrophils and macrophages. Chemoattractant-stimulated PI3Kgamma-/- neutrophils(More)
Chemerin is a chemotactic agonist recently identified as the ligand of ChemR23, a serpentine receptor expressed by mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). This study shows that blood CD56(low)CD16(+) natural killer (NK) cells selectively express functional ChemR23 and that this receptor is coexpressed with CXCR1, the CXCL8 receptor, and the KIR(More)
IL-8 and related Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR+) CXC chemokines are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils but not for monocytes. IL-13 and IL-4 strongly increased CXCR1 and CXCR2 chemokine receptor expression in human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The effect was receptor- and cell type-selective, in that CCRs were not increased and no augmentation was(More)
OBJECT The clinical outcome of patients with severe head injuries is still critically dependent on their secondary injuries. Although hypoxia and hypotension appear to mediate a substantial proportion of secondary injuries, many studies associate secondary brain injury with neuroinflammatory responses. Chemokines have been detected in the cerebrospinal(More)
Psoriasis is a type I interferon-driven T cell-mediated disease characterized by the recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) into the skin. The molecules involved in pDC accumulation in psoriasis lesions are unknown. Chemerin is the only inflammatory chemotactic factor that is directly active on human blood pDC in vitro. The aim of this study was(More)
We have investigated the chemokine receptor expression and migratory behavior of a new subset of nickel-specific skin-homing regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Th(IL-10)) releasing high levels of IL-10, low IFN-gamma, and undetectable IL-4. These cells inhibit in a IL-10-dependent manner the capacity of dendritic cells to activate nickel-specific Tc1 and Th1(More)
The promiscuous D6 receptor binds several inflammatory CC chemokines and has been recently proposed to act as a chemokine-scavenging decoy receptor. The present study was designed to better characterize the spectrum of CC chemokines scavenged by D6, focusing in particular on CCR4 ligands and analyzing the influence of NH(2)-terminal processing on(More)
Chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes is a key step in the initiation of an adequate immune response. Formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and FPR-like receptor (FPRL)1, two G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the FPR family, play an essential role in host defense mechanisms against bacterial infection and in the regulation of inflammatory(More)
The recruitment of T cells into the skin is regulated by chemokines released by resident cells. In this study, we found that normal human keratinocytes activated with Th1-derived supernatant (sup) expressed early (6-12 h) IP-10/CXCL10, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, and I-309/CCL1 mRNAs and with slower kinetics (24-96 h), RANTES/CCL5 and MDC/CCL22 mRNAs. Upon(More)