Learn More
Plasticity and functional polarization are hallmarks of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here we review emerging key properties of different forms of macrophage activation and polarization (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c), which represent extremes of a continuum. In particular, recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates(More)
Mononuclear phagocytes are versatile cells that can express different functional programs in response to microenvironmental signals. Fully polarized M1 and M2 (or alternatively activated) macrophages are the extremes of a continuum of functional states. Macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are driven by tumor-derived and T cell-derived cytokines to(More)
Monocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface markers and flow cytometry, and subpopulations have been described. The(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. ChemR23 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related to chemokine receptors, which is expressed specifically in these cell types. Here we present the characterization of chemerin, a novel chemoattractant(More)
Mature circulating polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) have the shortest half-life among leukocytes and undergo rapid programmed cell death in vitro. In this study, we have examined the possibility that inflammatory signals (cytokines and bacterial products) can regulate PMN survival. PMN in culture were found to rapidly die, with percentages of survival at 24,(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is crucial for leukocyte function, but the roles of the four receptor-activated isoforms are unclear. Mice lacking heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled PI3Kgamma were viable and had fully differentiated neutrophils and macrophages. Chemoattractant-stimulated PI3Kgamma-/- neutrophils(More)
T helper cells type 1 (Th1s) that produce interferon-gamma predominantly mediate cellular immune responses and are involved in the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, whereas Th2s which produce large amounts of IL-4 and IL-5 upregulate IgE production and are prominent in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The precise factors determining(More)
Treatment of human monocytes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isolated from tumor cell supernatants was reported to induce monocyte activation and migration. In this study we show that recombinant human VEGF165, and VEGF121 had a maximal effect on human monocyte migration at 65 to 250 pmol/L. Chemotactic activity of VEGF165 was inhibited by a(More)
Hypertrophic scarring is a skin disorder characterized by persistent inflammation and fibrosis that may occur after wounding or thermal injury. Altered production of cytokines and growth factors, such as TGF-beta, play an important role in this process. Activin A, a member of the TGF-beta family, shares the same intra-cellular Smad signalling pathway with(More)
The existence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets is firmly established, but their trafficking properties are still largely unknown. We have indicated that myeloid dendritic cells (M-DCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (P-DCs) isolated from human blood differ widely in the capacity to migrate to chemotactic stimuli. The pattern of chemokine receptors expressed(More)