Learn More
Plasticity and functional polarization are hallmarks of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here we review emerging key properties of different forms of macrophage activation and polarization (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c), which represent extremes of a continuum. In particular, recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates(More)
Mononuclear phagocytes are versatile cells that can express different functional programs in response to microenvironmental signals. Fully polarized M1 and M2 (or alternatively activated) macrophages are the extremes of a continuum of functional states. Macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are driven by tumor-derived and T cell-derived cytokines to(More)
Monocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface markers and flow cytometry, and subpopulations have been described. The(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. ChemR23 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related to chemokine receptors, which is expressed specifically in these cell types. Here we present the characterization of chemerin, a novel chemoattractant(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is crucial for leukocyte function, but the roles of the four receptor-activated isoforms are unclear. Mice lacking heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled PI3Kgamma were viable and had fully differentiated neutrophils and macrophages. Chemoattractant-stimulated PI3Kgamma-/- neutrophils(More)
Treatment of human monocytes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isolated from tumor cell supernatants was reported to induce monocyte activation and migration. In this study we show that recombinant human VEGF165, and VEGF121 had a maximal effect on human monocyte migration at 65 to 250 pmol/L. Chemotactic activity of VEGF165 was inhibited by a(More)
In an effort to define the actual function of the promiscuous putatively silent chemokine receptor D6, transfectants were generated in different cell types. Engagement of D6 by inflammatory CC chemokines elicited no calcium response nor chemotaxis, but resulted in efficient agonist internalization and degradation. Also in lymphatic endothelium, where this(More)
Mature circulating polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) have the shortest half-life among leukocytes and undergo rapid programmed cell death in vitro. In this study, we have examined the possibility that inflammatory signals (cytokines and bacterial products) can regulate PMN survival. PMN in culture were found to rapidly die, with percentages of survival at 24,(More)
Chemerin is a chemotactic agonist recently identified as the ligand of ChemR23, a serpentine receptor expressed by mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). This study shows that blood CD56(low)CD16(+) natural killer (NK) cells selectively express functional ChemR23 and that this receptor is coexpressed with CXCR1, the CXCL8 receptor, and the KIR(More)
Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was(More)