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Annexins are a group of 12 highly conserved proteins which exert several regulatory functions on cell biology. There are involved in numerous cell processes including vesicle trafficking, calcium signaling, cell growth, division, and apoptosis. Autoantibodies directed toward annexin I, II, V and XI have been reported, but their role and their clinical(More)
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate primarily affecting the skeletal muscle and skin. Most common and peculiar cutaneous lesions include Gottron's papules, Gottron's sign and heliotrope rash. Different DM subsets have been identified until now encompassing classic DM, amyopathic DM,(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate disease activity patterns and flare occurrence in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS Patients registered in our lupus Database, diagnosed with SLE between 1991 and 2004 and followed up quarterly from 2004 to 2010 were considered in the study. Disease activity patterns were defined using SLE Disease(More)
AIM To assess the prevalence of prolonged remission in Caucasian patients affected with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its relationship with damage accrual. METHODS Caucasian patients diagnosed with SLE between 1990 and 2009 and quarterly seen from 2009 to 2013 were included in the study. We defined remission as prolonged when lasting ≥5(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents which exert multiple effects on immune cell functions. Although their use dates back 60 years, their functions and mode of action have not been completely elucidated yet. GCs act through different genomic and non genomic mechanisms which are mediated by the binding to cytosolic(More)
Around 1980 antinuclear antibody testing became widely used in routine laboratory practice leading to a tapering in the lag time between SLE onset and diagnosis. Since then nothing relevant has been introduced which could help us in making the diagnosis of SLE earlier than now. Notably, there is increasing evidence that early diagnosis and treatment could(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic, autoimmune disease, encompassing either mild or severe manifestations. SLE was originally labeled as being an immune complex-mediated disease, but further knowledge suggested its pathogenesis is motlier than that, involving complex interactions between predisposed individuals and their environment.(More)
Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and Behçet's disease (BD) are immune-mediated conditions which are usually treated with corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and, when refractory, with biologic agents. In both diseases, interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels are increased driving the immune-mediated inflammatory process. Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody,(More)
Overlap Syndromes (OSs) have been defined as entities satisfying classification criteria of at least two connective tissue diseases (CTDs) occurring at the same or at different times in the same patient. CTDs include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PDM), and Sjögren(More)
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the skeletal muscle. Weakness, mainly affecting the proximal muscles, is the cardinal muscular symptom in IIM. In patients with dermatomyositis, peculiar skin lesions are observed. The assessment of patients with IIM includes clinical and laboratory evaluation,(More)