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Cellular fate of nanoparticles is vital to application of nanoparticles to cell imaging, bio-sensing, drug delivery, suppression of drug resistance, gene delivery, and cytotoxicity analysis. However, the current studies on cellular fate of nanoparticles have been controversial due to complications of interplay between many possible factors. By(More)
The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to(More)
Drug release simultaneously with carrier decomposition has been demonstrated in SiO2-drug composite nanoparticles. By creating a radial drug concentration gradient in the nanoparticle, controllable release of the drug is primarily driven by diffusion. Escape of the drug molecules then triggers the SiO2 carrier decomposition, which starts from the center of(More)
Combinational chemotherapy capable of targeted delivery and programmable multi-drug release leads to enhanced drug efficacy, and is highly desired for cancer treatment. However, effective approaches for achieving both features in a single treatment are limited. In the present work, we demonstrated programmed delivery of both chemotherapeutic and(More)
Sustained drug release for a long duration is a desired feature of modern drugs. Using double-loaded self-decomposable SiO2 nanoparticles, we demonstrated sustained drug release in a controllable manner. The double loading of the drugs was achieved using two different mechanisms-the first one via a co-growth mechanism, and the second one by absorption. A(More)
The photosensitizer (PS) methylene blue (MB) is confined in the close vicinity of an Au nanorod, by incorporating it into SiO2 during Au-core/SiO2-shell nanoparticle (NP) growth. Upon light irradiation of the Au@(SiO2-MB) NPs, generation of reactive oxygen species and their transport to the cytoplasm are directly responsible for significantly decreased cell(More)
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