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To rapidly respond to invading microorganisms, humans call on their innate immune system. This occurs by microbe-detecting receptors, such as CD14, that activate immune cells to eliminate the pathogens. Here, we link the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 with Alzheimer's disease, a severe neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. We demonstrate that(More)
Microglial activation is a key feature in Alzheimer's disease and is considered to contribute to progressive neuronal injury by release of neurotoxic products. The innate immune receptor Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), localized on the surface of microglia, is a first-line host defense receptor against invading microorganisms. Here, we show that a spontaneous(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neuroinflammatory responses are considered to contribute to neuronal injury. Recently, the innate immune receptors, toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the LPS receptor (CD14) have been related to neurodegeneration. In this study, we(More)
Brain aging often results in cognitive impairment and is considered to be a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. Earlier studies reported inflammatory responses in aged brain that could contribute to age-related neurodegeneration. Recently, innate immune receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), so far implicated in defense against(More)
BACKGROUND Early treatment with rt-PA is critical for favorable outcome of acute stroke. However, only a very small proportion of stroke patients receive this treatment, as most arrive at hospital too late to be eligible for rt-PA therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We developed a "Mobile Stroke Unit", consisting of an ambulance equipped with computed(More)
BACKGROUND Only 2-5% of patients who have a stroke receive thrombolytic treatment, mainly because of delay in reaching the hospital. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a new approach of diagnosis and treatment starting at the emergency site, rather than after hospital arrival, in reducing delay in stroke therapy. METHODS We did a randomised single-centre(More)
Cerebral cholesterol metabolism has been linked with production of amyloid peptide (Abeta) crucial in AD. The association between use of cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) and AD disease is currently being intensely discussed. In this case-control study on elderly nondemented subjects, the authors provide the first evidence that statins in clinically(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is pathologically characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neuronal injury. Although phagocytosis of myelin debris by microglia and macrophages in acute MS lesions is well documented, its pathophysiological significance is unclear. Using real-time quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, ELISA, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)(More)
The amyloid beta peptide 42 (Abeta(42)) plays a key role in neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Mononuclear phagocytes, i.e. microglia, have the potential to clear Abeta by phagocytosis. Recently, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor CD14 was shown to mediate phagocytosis of bacterial components and furthermore to contribute to neuroinflammation in(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by deposits of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and microglia-driven inflammatory activation. Tenascin-C (tnc) is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated in inflammation and induces further inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that tnc contributes to the inflammatory pathology in AD.(More)