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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are associated with type 2 diabetes and reduced insulin secretion. The transcription factor TCF7L2 is an essential factor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal L cells. We studied whether a defect in the enteroinsular axis contributes to impaired insulin(More)
BACKGROUND Prohormone convertase 1 is involved in maturation of peptides. Rare mutations in gene PCSK1, encoding this enzyme, cause childhood obesity and abnormal glucose homeostasis with elevated proinsulin concentrations. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene, rs6232 and rs6235, are associated with obesity. We studied whether(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes arises when insulin resistance-induced compensatory insulin secretion exhausts. Insulin resistance and/or beta-cell dysfunction result from the interaction of environmental factors (high-caloric diet and reduced physical activity) with a predisposing polygenic background. Very recently, genetic variations within four novel genetic(More)
CONTEXT The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 (KCNA3) is expressed in a variety of tissues including liver and skeletal muscle. In animal models, knockout of Kv1.3 has been found to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. OBJECTIVE We examined whether mutations in the Kv1.3 gene exist in humans and whether they are associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes. This linkage appears to be mediated by altered beta-cell function. In an attempt to study underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of four KCNQ1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on insulin secretion upon different stimuli. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We genotyped 1,578(More)
BACKGROUND Very recently, a novel type 2 diabetes risk gene, i.e., MTNR1B, was identified and reported to affect fasting glycemia. Using our thoroughly phenotyped cohort of subjects at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, we assessed the association of common genetic variation within the MTNR1B locus with obesity and prediabetes traits, namely impaired(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified a series of novel type 2 diabetes risk loci. Most of them were subsequently demonstrated to affect insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Very recently, a meta-analysis of GWA data revealed nine additional risk loci with still undefined roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Using our(More)
OBJECTIVE At least 20 type 2 diabetes loci have now been identified, and several of these are associated with altered beta-cell function. In this study, we have investigated the combined effects of eight known beta-cell loci on insulin secretion stimulated by three different secretagogues during hyperglycemic clamps. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR) is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4(D299G/T399I)) are(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin stimulates cerebrocortical beta and theta activity in lean humans. This effect is reduced in obese individuals indicating cerebrocortical insulin resistance. In the present study we tested whether insulin detemir is a suitable tool to restore the cerebral insulin response in overweight humans. This approach is based on studies in mice(More)